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   2014| January-April  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 31, 2014

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A critical review of periodontal prognosis and tooth loss
Georgios A Kotsakis, Udatta Kher
January-April 2014, 1(1):32-36
During the incipient steps of periodontal treatment, clinicians are usually asked to predict the prognosis of teeth with compromised periodontium. The aim of this literature review was to investigate the association between periodontal prognosis and tooth loss. This review article is structured in three sections: The early definition of questionable prognosis, a new classification for assigning Prognosis: The McGuire and Nunn studies, and Contemporary views on periodontal prognosis. Results showed that the definition of good prognosis has much higher predictability than the one for questionable prognosis. Several risk indicators for tooth loss are discussed as well as different definitions of questionable prognosis and their success in predicting tooth loss. In conclusion, the major focus of future studies should be to construct simplified prognostic models with high predictability that will increase the confidence of dentists and periodontists when assigning teeth prognosis.
  8,890 1,183 1
Knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health maintenance and treatment modalities for their children
Pooja Bodhale, Swati Karkare, Shivaji Khedkar
January-April 2014, 1(1):24-27
Background and Aim: Parents have an important role in making decisions about their child's oral health. The purpose of this study was to determine parental awareness of their children's oral health maintenance and their attitude toward dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Total 284 parents from different socioeconomic groups participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health and treatment modalities. Results: Awareness among parents was significantly lower in low socioeconomic group. Their attitude toward dental treatment differed significantly in which only 53% parents from high socioeconomic group preferred going to the pediatric dentist. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low and there is need for the implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents to change their attitude toward dental treatment of their children.
  8,865 1,092 2
Maxillofacial osteoradionecrosis
Amit T Suryawanshi, S. N. Santhosh Kumar, RS Dolas, Ruchi Khindria, Vivek Pawar, Manju Singh
January-April 2014, 1(1):42-49
Osteoradionecrosis is a severe and delayed radiation-induced injury, characterized by bone tissue necrosis and failure to heal. Cases of osteoradionecrosis present to the clinician with features of pain, drainage, and fistulation of the mucosa or skin related to exposed bone in the previously irradiated area. The tumour size and location, radiation dose, occurrence of local trauma, dental extractions, infection, immune defects, and malnutrition are predisposing factors. A better understanding of risk factors leading to the development osteoradionecrosis and of the underlying pathophysiology may improve the ability of the clinician to prevent the occurrence and help improve the prognosis of this complication. Although the frequency of osteoradionecrosis has declined since the introduction of newer methods of radiotherapy, this review focuses on the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, radiological features, diagnosis, and treatment modalities including the newer modalities.
  8,414 902 1
Oral hygiene awareness among school children of rural Mangalore
Ananth Kamath, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle, Hrishikesh Walimbe, Vishwas Patil
January-April 2014, 1(1):7-9
Aim: The aim of the survey was to assess awareness regarding oral hygiene practice amongst children toward oral health in rural population of Mangalore city. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out among 2636 children (boys: 1508 and girls: 1128) who were in the age group of 5-12 years studying in various schools of rural Mangalore. Data on oral hygiene practice were collected by means of self-administered questionnaire. Results: This survey found that 52% children brush their teeth twice a day and 98.9% children brushed in horizontal direction. Other oral hygiene aids were sparsely used (5.3%). None of the school children had any form of interactive sessions on oral hygiene practice with their respective class teacher. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that basic oral hygiene knowledge and practice of the study participants was good but advanced knowledge needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs and awareness amongst teachers are needed to improve oral health of school children.
  7,513 856 3
Prevalence of anterior gingival recession and related factors among Saudi adolescent males in Abha City, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia
Hossam E Eid
January-April 2014, 1(1):18-23
Background: Gingival recessions (GR) are asymptomatic and develop slowly, it can be localized or generalized, and be associated with one or more surfaces. Age is a variable that several authors have found associated with gingival recession. This study aimed to evaluate gingival recession clinically and related variables in a population of Saudi adolescent males, Southwestern of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 250 Saudi adolescent males aged between 12 and 18 years. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using University of Michigan '0' probe with William's markings, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk-related factors. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: Out of 250 patients, 73.00% ± 8.97% were presented with gingival recession (GR) and 27.00% ± 4.11% without GR. The highest number 56 (22.4%) of patients were presented with GR and 8.4% without GR in the age group of 14 years. Then chronologically, 17.6% and 9.6%, 16.4% and 0.4%, 12.4% and 1.6%, and 0.8% and 0% patients were evident with and without GR of 15-, 17-, 16- and 18-years age groups, respectively. 22.25% ± 42.52% patients had GR in the upper left central incisors. Whereas, 17.25% ± 15.52%, 11.75% ± 17.48%, and 1.5% ± 1.91% patients were presented with GR in upper right central incisors, upper-left lateral incisors and upper-right lateral incisors, respectively. 50.4% ± 3.63% and 1.2% ± 0.31% having or not GR, respectively, who were not cleaning teeth at all. Toothbrush users had GR 28.8% ± 4.52% and 18% ± 2.84% without GR. Miswak and both aids users had or not GR were 18.8% ± 3.35%, 0.4% ± 0.15%, and 3.2% ± 0.49% and 4.4% ±1.13%, respectively. (51.6% ± 7.29%) of patients had GR without anterior crowding rather than the patients with anterior crowding (21.2 ± 3.49%). The highest percentage (38.4% ± 5.95%) of patients had GR having normal frenal attachments (Grade 0), whereas, in Grade 2, 1, and 3, patients had GR 34.8% ± 4.68%, 23.6% ± 3.08%, and 13.6% ± 2.20%, respectively. Interestingly, GRs were present in all patients who had habits of both smoking and tobacco use (8.4% ± 2.83%). Conclusion: The results of this study proved that neglecting oral hygiene is the most common cause behind increase the gingival recession among adolescents.
  6,584 532 2
Comparison of conventional and microwave histo-processing of various oral soft tissue specimens
Shankargouda Patil, Roopa S Rao, Amrutha Nagaraja, Sanketh D. Sharath Kumar
January-April 2014, 1(1):3-6
Background and Aim: While a number of pathologists have reviewed the techniques and results of microwave-facilitated tissue fixation and processing, there has been no record of any previous studies where specific tissues were chosen and compared. Hence, the aim of the present study was to specifically evaluate and compare the diagnostic ability of selective oral soft tissue specimens processed and stained by the conventional and microwave method. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 40 formalin-fixed tissue samples from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology, 10 each of epithelial, muscle, adipose and glandular tissue. Each specimen was cut into two halves with one half processed and stained by the conventional method while the other by the microwave method. With the procedure blinded, four observers evaluated the slides employing Babu et al's criteria pertaining to cellular clarity, cytoplasmic details, nuclear detail and color intensity. The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and kappa. Results: The microwave method yielded better results as compared to the conventional with respect to processing and staining although there was no statistical difference between the two. A drastic reduction in time with the microwave method was observed. Conclusion: The results obtained by microwave method surpassed the conventional method. Hence, it is ideal to adopt the microwave method for any oral soft tissue for quicker and reliable results.
  6,042 608 1
Instructions manual for patients visiting pediatric dentistry clinics: A sample draft for use in dental colleges
Rafi A Togoo, Zakirulla Meer, Syed Mohammad Yaseen, VS Nasim, KS Ravi, Shabina Khan
January-April 2014, 1(1):50-54
The Division of Pedodontics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry Abha is one of the major service providers patient's instruction manual is provided to all patients in Arabic and English and is hereby presented as sample for other institutions in Southern Saudi Arabia. A patient's instruction manual is an important component of any institution providing dental services to the community. This instructions manual of the Division of Pedodontics covers the services provided and general patient information for Pre and post treatment procedures. The aim of the manual is to ensure that patient and parents are well aware of all aspects of comprehensive pediatric dental treatment. This patient's instruction manual is provided to all patients in Arabic and English and is hereby presented as sample for other institutions.
  5,738 583 -
Assessment of collagen fiber nature, spatial distribution, hue and its correlation with invasion and metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma and surgical margins using Picro Sirius red and polarized microscope
Ketki K Kalele, Noopur A Managoli, NM Roopa, Meena Kulkarni, Neeta Bagul, Supriya Kheur
January-April 2014, 1(1):14-17
Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) comprises a bulk of all the oral malignancies and is posing a major health problem among the population. It is an established fact that tumor stroma plays a vital role in tumor progression. Therefore, methods to detect, quantify, and analyze collagen are of immense value in this regard. Picro Sirius red, which has the capability to detect thin fibers, although frequently used, is seldom exploited to the fullest extent. Aim: Our goal is not only to identify nature of fibers, but also to assess the fiber hue and the spatial distribution of different colors in various grades of OSCC and correlate it with the metastasis of the tumor. The study has also analyzed the nature of stromal elements along the clear, close and involved surgical margins of OSCC. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of well, moderately and poorly differentiated OSCC as well as clear, close and involved margins were stained with haematoxylin eosin and picrosirius red staining for evaluation under polarized microscope. Results: In this study we found that the birefringence of the collagen fiber changed from orange red to yellowish green from well to poorly differentiated OSCC. The collagen fibers in well-differentiated carcinoma revealed polarizing colors of reddish orange around the tumor islands in the majority of the fields. To the best of our knowledge is not being studied so far in the English literature. Conclusion: In the present study, it has been observed that stromal changes at the invading front of the tumor islands and with increasing grade of the tumor can be evaluated more efficiently with the use of Picro Sirius red stain.
  5,505 619 6
Masking the unmasked-gingival veneer
Dipti Sanghavi, Anuradha Mallya, Presanthila Janam, Rohit K Menon
January-April 2014, 1(1):28-31
Black triangles are third most disliked aesthetic problem after caries and crown margins. Periodontal disease is one of most common reason for black triangles. The dental aesthetics is a fine balance between white and pink component surrounding natural teeth and their replacements. Gingival veneer is of importance in periodontal conditions where multiple teeth are affected with alveolar bone loss and surgical correction is not a feasible option. Gingival veneer is noninvasive, economical, and less time consuming treatment option large areas of aesthetic and functional deficit.
  5,389 453 -
Have biomarkers made their mark? A brief review of dental biomarkers
Mohammed Kaleem Sultan, Syed Sadatullah, Mohammed Asif Shaik
January-April 2014, 1(1):37-41
Biomarkers are substances that are released into the human body by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor. A high level of a tumor marker is considered a sign of certain cancer, which makes biomarker the subject of many testing methods for the diagnosis of cancers. In recent times, these biomarkers have been successfully isolated to diagnose dental-related tumors, benign and malignant conditions. This article is a brief review of literature for various biomarkers used in the field of dentistry.
  5,098 540 1
Evaluation of facial trauma in pediatric population
Pushkar P Waknis, Samrat Sabhlok, RS Dolas, Gandhali Limaye
January-April 2014, 1(1):10-13
Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence and treatment rendered for fractures in pediatric population over a period of 13 years. Materials and Methods: Surgical data over 13 years were evaluated for age, type of fracture, and treatment rendered. Out of a total of 423 trauma cases operated, a total of 38 pediatric trauma cases were seen, with 30 patients requiring at least some type of surgical intervention. The etiology of most of the fractures was road traffic accidents. Results: The eight cases of dentoalveolar and undisplaced parasymphysis trauma were managed by wiring and four cases of soft tissue injury treated by suturing while 18 cases required surgery in the form of osteosynthesis. Bioresorbable plating system was used in 11 cases while Titanium plates were used in seven patients, which were removed within 3 months.Conclusion: We recommend the use of open reduction internal fixation with bioresorbable plating system in children above 10 years of age and arch bar fixation for dentoalveolar trauma.
  4,057 427 -
Beginning of new voyage in dental literature
Mohammed Nadeem Bijle
January-April 2014, 1(1):2-2
  2,996 290 -
From the Dean's desk - Journal of dental research and review: As progressive reporting
RS Dolas
January-April 2014, 1(1):1-1
  2,612 292 -