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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 276-278

Oral care practice for preventing COVID-19: A summary


1 Private Academic Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. DY Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India; Department of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Serbia; Department of Biological Science, Joseph Ayobabalola University, Osun State, Nigeria; Department of Tropical Medicine, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China

Date of Submission06-Feb-2022
Date of Acceptance23-May-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Feb-2023

Correspondence Address:
Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip
Private Academic Consultant, 111 Bangkok 112, Bangkok 103300
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_27_22

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  Abstract 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2, a novel coronavirus. The disease has spread internationally and affects all continents after its first appearance in East Asia in December 2019, affecting more than 200 countries. As a result of social alienation and stay-at-home responsibilities, oral health care practice has become critical. Oral hygiene is important for COVID-19 prevention because it has been linked to the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. The authors of this article are particularly concerned about natural oral care practice and its link to the prevention of COVID-19.

Keywords: Care, coronavirus disease 2019, dental, oral, practice, prevention


How to cite this article:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Oral care practice for preventing COVID-19: A summary. J Dent Res Rev 2022;9:276-8

How to cite this URL:
Mungmunpuntipantip R, Wiwanitkit V. Oral care practice for preventing COVID-19: A summary. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Mar 26];9:276-8. Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2022/9/4/276/369586




  Introduction Top


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging respiratory infection. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SAR-CoV-2) becomes an important global public health problem. Since its first appearance in East Asia in December 2019, the disease has expanded internationally.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] COVID-19 already affects more than 200 countries in all continents.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5] Clinically, COVID-19 has been associated with a number of phenotypes, including acute febrile illness and severe respiratory problems. COVID-19 patients typically experience metabolic issues, which can lead to a more severe clinical course. COVID-19 has been linked to a number of different illnesses in a range of settings. Countless millions of people in tropical countries have already been infected with COVID-19. COVID-19's clinical appearance may be altered by tropical illnesses such as dengue fever or tuberculosis, making diagnosis and treatment more difficult.

COVID-19 must be handled with caution. Typically, sickness is managed in a number of ways by government-run public health institutions. Primary medical care centers, according to the public health paradigm, are the frontlines in the fight against outbreaks such as COVID-19. Several obstacles, particularly in impoverished countries, impede the performance of these centers, including insufficient awareness among primary health-care personnel, a lack of adequate personal protective equipment, and a lack of well-trained primary care center administrators.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]

There is currently no treatment for COVID-19, and several antiviral regimens have yielded variable clinical results, with the mode of therapy mainly supportive in terms of minimizing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. Food supplements and nutraceuticals based on ethnopharmacological plant knowledge have shown promise in preventing and treating the present outbreak.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] Several intriguing ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology techniques have been revealed as important indigenous wisdom that should be further investigated.[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] Nonetheless, the most fundamental cleanliness concept remains one of the most important COVID-19 prevention strategies. Oral health care practice has been crucial since the emergence of COVID-19. Because oral hygiene has been connected to the treatment of a range of medical disorders, it is vital for COVID-19 prevention. Natural oral care practices and their link to COVID-19 prevention are of great importance to the authors of this article.


  Natural Oral Care Practice Top


COVID-19 has a serious clinical problem with oral health and dental care. One oral health care practice has become crucial as a result of social alienation and stay-at-home commitments. Given the importance of dental health and the fact that many people still struggle to get regular cleanings, COVID-19 should make oral care a priority. Natural dental care is a type of treatment that combines complementary and alternative medicine from both modern and traditional sources. In actuality, natural health care is an excellent complement to a holistic medical or dental practice. It can help with chronic diseases, pain, obesity, weariness, and even heart disease, cancer, and other ailments that are linked to dental health. Several natural medicine managements could be chosen based on a variety of factors.

As previously stated, natural oral care has a part in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. The authors of this article are particularly interested in natural oral care and its association with COVID-19.


  Natural Oral Care Practice and Coronavirus Disease 2019 Top


After attaching to the host angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells after the viral spike protein is broken by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) (ACE2). The oral cavity could be a potential entry point for SARS-CoV-2 because ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the tongue and gingival mucosa. As a result, excellent natural oral care practices are beneficial for enhancing oral health hygiene and lowering COVID-19 during the current epidemic.

Toothbrushing

The act of brushing one's teeth using a toothbrush is known as toothbrushing. Toothpaste is an essential component of toothbrushing. Today's toothpaste comes in a range of flavors. Toothpastes with herbal formulas are a unique sort of dental product. In truth, toothpaste is a widely used dental product that everyone uses to brush their teeth. Many toothpastes are manufactured using locally sourced materials, such as local herbal plants. In the case of COVID-19, toothpaste has been proven to kill 99.9% of the virus responsible for the disease.[16] According to a recent study by Tateyama-Makino et al.,[17] sodium tetradecene sulfonate, sodium N-lauroyl-N-methyl taurate, sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and copper gluconate found in toothpaste can help prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is suggested that toothbrushing is a simple natural oral care practice that is cost-effective for preventing COVID-19.[18]

Despite the lack of clinical evidence that toothpaste containing chlorhexidine gluconate, cetylpyridinium chloride, povidone-iodine, and hydrogen peroxide can prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2,[19] it is recommended to reduce the number of germs in aerosols and drops during oral procedures. According to dental care recommendations,[19] brushing with proper toothpaste lowers the viral load in freshly created saliva. SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to be resistant to mouthwash and toothpaste.[16],[20]

The implementation of ineffective interventions in the dental environment may lead to COVID-19 transmission between cohabitants.[21] In COVID-19 situations, replacing the brush after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) + is advised.[21] Tongue brushing accompanied with toothbrushing is also proven useful in preventing COVID-19.[21]

Finally, there are some evidence that good natural oral practice during admission due to COVID-19 can help achieve a good clinical outcome. It was discovered that implementing effective oral hygiene measures, such as good toothbrushing, especially under the supervision of dental professionals, can help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 cases, resulting in more mechanical ventilation equipment being available.[22]

Mouth washing and oral rinsing

The oral cavity, as previously established, plays a critical part in the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. Maintaining proper oral hygiene is essential. Oral cleansing is often discussed in the management and prevention of COVID-19. The use of toothpaste and mouthwash is expected to reduce pathogens. Even without additional dental products, oral gargling with clear, clean water plays a role.[23],[24] Antimicrobial mouthwashes, on the other hand, are efficient at lowering virus loads in oral fluids.[23] On the other hand, the oral rinse must be used correctly. Mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine and alcohol can discolor tooth surfaces, restorations, and the tongue over time, as well as cause a change in taste, increased tartar formation, irritation, and mucosal injury.[24]

There are several kinds of mouthwash. Some are natural products. Herbal mouthwash treatments are available in addition to toothpaste. Using salted water as a mouthwash solution is, in fact, a fascinatingly rooted traditional practice of indigenous peoples in several nations. For COVID-19, it is proven that mouth washing and oral rinsing using appropriate mouthwash can significantly reduce the pathogen.[25],[26] Recent evidence has confirmed that 0.5% povidone-iodine mouth rinse/gargle for 30 s can reduce SARS-CoV-2 virus infectivity to below detectable levels.[27]

The most common elements in locally available mouthwash treatments are salt and a native plant. Seeing how a local company develops a dental product with natural materials is fascinating. Many local producers use a simple technique called grinding to compress the herbs into powder, which is then used to make toothpaste powder. Some manufacturers incorporate ground local herb powder straight into the crease to make a modern-looking toothpaste dental solution. Herbal materials are included for two reasons. The inclusion of a herbal formula is also intended to entice.

Mouthwashes are popular because they help to reduce the amount of bacteria in the mouth. Despite the lack of clinical evidence that antimicrobial mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate, cetylpyridinium chloride, povidone-iodine, and hydrogen peroxide can prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission,[19] they are recommended to reduce the number of microorganisms in aerosols and drops during oral procedures. Mouthwash should be administered every 5 min, according to dental treatment recommendations, to minimize the viral load in freshly secreted saliva.[19] SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated to be resistant to mouthwash and toothpaste.[16],[20] Mouthwash quality is currently a key cause of concern. Low-quality and nonstandard dental supplies are already a problem during a pandemic and must be addressed as a public health issue.[21]

Dental flossing

Dental floss is a string of thin filaments used in interdental cleaning to remove food and plaque from between teeth and other areas where a toothbrush cannot or will not reach. Its regular usage as part of dental hygiene is intended to keep teeth healthy. There is no data whether regular dental flossing help prevents or increases the risk of COVID-19.


  Conclusion Top


COVID-19 is a new pandemic caused by SAR-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus. COVID-19 has a major oral health and dental care concern. As a result of social alienation and stay-at-home commitments, one oral health-care practice has become critical. Natural dental care can aid in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. The oral cavity could be a potential entry point for SARS-CoV-2 because ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in the tongue and gingival mucosa. It is extremely beneficial to use dental products to keep your mouth clean during the COVID-19 outbreak. Basic mouth hygiene, such as gargling, is another good natural COVID-19 preventative approach.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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Tateyama-Makino R, Abe-Yutori M, Iwamoto T, Tsutsumi K, Tsuji M, Morishita S, et al. The inhibitory effects of toothpaste and mouthwash ingredients on the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2, and the protease activity of TMPRSS2 in vitro. PLoS One 2021;16:e0257705.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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