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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-116

Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward cone-beam computed tomography in and around salem district: A questionnaire survey


Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vinayaka Mission's Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Mission Research Foundation-Deemed to be University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission06-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance22-Feb-2021
Date of Web Publication16-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
K Aswin Revanth
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vinayaka Mission's Sankarachariyar Dental College, Vinayaka Mission Research Foundation-Deemed to be University, Salem, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_141_20

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  Abstract 


Introduction: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a revolutionary technique that was first created in 1982 for angiography and subsequently extended to maxillofacial imaging. It uses a divergent or "cone-" shaped ionizing radiation source and a two-dimensional (3D) region detector mounted on a rotating portal. During maxillofacial exposure, the radiation exposure dosage from CBCT is 10 times smaller than from conventional computed tomography scans. 3D perception of dental structures is growing quickly and it would not have been conceivable without the accessibility of advanced digital imaging. Materials and Methodology: A questionnaire study was done on 204 participants. The questions were self-designed, structured, and validated e questionnaire. Twenty-five multiple choice e questions were given to the participants. Results: Results were analyzed which shows that the vast majority of the members utilize advanced imaging in their daily schedule. Easy to store information and shorter time was the primary motivation to utilize CBCT than contrasted with less radiation dose. Advantages were data reconstruction and lower radiation dose followed shorter scan time, free from processing of radiograph. Discussion: Easy to store information and shorter time was the primary motivation to utilize CBCT. The most significant factor for preferring CBCT over digital imaging was the reduced radiation dose. The advantages were data reconstruction and lower radiation dose followed shorter scan time. Conclusion: In evaluating oral and maxillofacial pathologies with a reduction in radiation exposure, CBCT has a major role. Dental specialists should support CBCT imaging only as they expect that diagnostic performance can favor the still mind, improve persistent well-being, or significantly improve health outcomes. CBCT is one of the most notable recent developments in today's dentistry.

Keywords: Attitudes, cone-beam computed tomography, knowledge


How to cite this article:
Revanth K A, Mohan N, Mathew S, Karthik R, Ravikumar P T, Gokulraj S. Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward cone-beam computed tomography in and around salem district: A questionnaire survey. J Dent Res Rev 2021;8:113-6

How to cite this URL:
Revanth K A, Mohan N, Mathew S, Karthik R, Ravikumar P T, Gokulraj S. Knowledge and attitude of dentists toward cone-beam computed tomography in and around salem district: A questionnaire survey. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Aug 1];8:113-6. Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2021/8/2/113/321525




  Introduction Top


Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming very useful in the field of dentomaxillofacial imaging. With its advancements, the need for large medical equipment to visualize a maxillofacial region had been tremendously reduced. CBCT is a revolutionary technique that was first created in 1982 for angiography and subsequently extended to maxillofacial imaging. To obtain several sequential projection images in one complete scan around the region of interest, it uses a divergent or "cone-" shaped ionizing radiation source and a two-dimensional (3D) region detector mounted on a rotating portal.[1] A full 3D view of the maxilla, mandible, teeth, and supporting structures with comparatively higher spatial resolution and lower radiation exposure for the patient is provided by the new generation scanner. The evaluation of jaw for the placement of dental implants, analysis of teeth and facial structures for orthodontic treatment planning, evaluation of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) for osseous degenerative changes, determination of the proximity of the lower wisdom teeth to the mandibular nerve before surgery, evaluation of the proximity of the lower wisdom teeth to the mandibular nerve before surgery are the most important indications for cone-beam imaging in dentistry.[2] With its outstanding advantages such as rapid scan time, dose reduction, X-ray beam limitation, the CBCT becomes the need of the hour.[3] Precise oral diagnosis and treatment are firmly connected to the quality of dental radiographs.[4] Disadvantages of film-based radiography such as the support of darkroom, chemical handling of processing solutions are avoided.[5] 3D perception of dental structures with CBCT is growing quickly, and it would not have been conceivable without the accessibility of advanced digital imaging. This imaging method is capable of providing higher diagnostic quality of submillimeter resolution (2 line pairs/mm) images, with a shorter scanning time of around 60 s. The radiation exposure dose for CBCT during maxillofacial exposure is 10 times lower than for traditional computed tomography (CT) scans (68 microsieverts vs. 600 microsieverts for conventional CT).[6] This study is done to assess the awareness and knowledge of CBCT in a particular population.


  Materials and Methodology Top


A questionnaire study was done in which 204 participants responded. The questions were self-designed, structured, validated e questionnaire which were approved by the institutional ethical committee. Interns, postgraduates, academicians, and practitioners in and around Salem district were included in the study. Twenty-five multiple choice E-questions to assess both the knowledge and attitude were given to the participants. In terms of frequencies and percentages, the descriptive statistics were determined.


  Results Top


Results were analyzed which showed that the vast majority of the members utilize advanced imaging modality like CBCT in their daily schedule. Out of 204 participants in our study 124 (60.8%) were female members, 80 (39.2%) were male members. 132 (64.71%) were undergraduates, 72 (35.29%) were postgraduates [Figure 1]. Most of the members were practicing dentistry with under 5 years of experience, utilizes computerized imaging modalities for taking radiographs. Furthermore, the majority of the members 188 (92.16%) knew about the CBCT imaging modality. About 172 (84.31%) felt the need of having CBCT in their dental establishment. Continuing dental education programs, workshops, seminars were the standard mode of information about CBCT [Table 1] and about 99 (48.53%) felt that CBCT can be utilized in all specialties of dentistry. Out of 204 members, 152 (74.51%) were happy to accumulate and acquire information with respect to CBCT which will become the future in dental imaging. Easy to store information and shorter scan time was the primary motivation to utilize CBCT. 154 (75.49%) members prefer toward CBCT as a 3D imaging modality than CT and they expect educating undergraduate students during the final year of the course period in dentistry. Advantages of CBCT were data reconstruction, lower radiation dose followed by shorter scan time, and free from processing of radiograph. One hundred and fifty-nine (25.28%) members felt the need for CBCT in implant dentistry and 114 (18.12%) members felt it can be utilized in the assessment of cyst and tumors.
Figure 1: Gender and qualification of participants

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Table 1: Responses to upgrading their cone-beam computed tomography awareness

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  Discussion Top


The present study used an E-Questionnaire among interns, postgraduates, academicians, and dental practitioners to test the awareness of CBCT. Most of the members were practicing dentistry with <5 years of experience, utilizes computerized imaging modalities such as CT and magnetic resonance imaging for taking radiographs. The majority of the members 188 (92.16%) knew about the CBCT imaging modality. About 172 (84.31%) participants felt the need of having CBCT in their dental establishment. Most of the participants mentioned that they would use CBCT in implant dentistry, which is correlated with the findings of the study conducted by Roshene and Kumar.[7] Among 204 surveyed, 140 (68.63%) participants use digital radiography to make radiographs and 64 (31.37%) did not use digital radiography [Table 2]. The reason why CBCT was not used because it was costlier when compared to conventional imaging modality, which was comparable to the study carried out by Shetty et al.[8] Our study was in accordance with Balabaskaran who stated the majority of participants came to know about CBCT through seminars, workshop, continuing dental education programs.[9] In a similar study conducted by Brian and Williamson, the most important factor in choosing CBCT imaging modality was "no need processing solutions."[10] The most significant reason to use CBCT mentioned in our study was "minimal radiation exposure" when compared to conventional imaging modality. CBCT units have axial, coronal, and sagittal perpendicular MPR (multiplanar reconstruction) images. Basic adjustments include zoom or magnification and visual adjustments within this window, the ability to add annotation and cursor-driven measurement to narrow the range of displayed grey-scales (window) and contrast level. CBCT has a role in all the specialties and general dental practice such as implant imaging, pathology surgical evaluation, TMJ assessment, pre and postoperative analysis of craniofacial fractures, and in the evaluation of orofacial pain [Table 3]. In orthodontics, CBCT imaging is useful in growth and development assessment. The use of CBCT in airway analysis and endodontics is on the increase.[11] The dimensions covered by the scan volume or field of view (FOV) depend mainly on the size and shape of the detector, the geometry of the beam projection, and the ability to collimate the beam. The scan volume's shape can be either cylindrical or spherical.[1] Smaller FOV which ranges from up to 5 cm in height, smallest FOV as small as 4 cm × 5 cm are available. Medium FOV which ranges from 5 cm to 10 cm and Large FOV with height >10 cm.[12] CBCT enables the dentist to limit the region of interest to a specific area as required thus reducing the radiation exposure to the patient. FOV can be adjusted according to the requirements.
Table 2: Study subjects response to digital imaging

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Table 3: Response towards cone-beam computed tomography application

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  Conclusion Top


CBCT plays a major role in our study in the evaluation of oral and maxillofacial region with a reduction in the exposure of radiation. The data collected from the study revealed that it was important to respond to emerging technologies such as CBCT and regular continuing education programs, workshops, seminars, undergraduate, and postgraduate curriculum to refresh and expertise the knowledge of this imaging to dental specialists. Besides, this analysis found that the majority of trustworthy participants utilizes the CBCT as a valuable screening tool in dentistry and the study also states that adequate expertise was not given in educational institutions in the case of CBCT though they were willing to attend various courses and upgrade their knowledge in CBCT. Dental professionals can only endorse this imaging when they expect precise 3D imaging, enhancing the diagnosis of the disease in the oral and maxillofacial region thereby increasing the consistent well-being of patients and dramatically improve their health outcomes. CBCT is one of the most notable recent developments in dentistry. It has several advantages including a lower radiation dose over medical CT.

Clinical significance

Dental specialists should welcome this excellent imaging breakthrough and dental curriculum should also be furnished with adequate training in CBCT. Thinking about the consequences of the current overview, it is clear that dental undergraduates from the institutions need CBCT to be accessible at their radiology section in their institutions. Moreover, detailed information ought to be incorporated into the dental radiology curriculum.

Limitations

The main limitations of our study were, it included only the dentists in the Salem population, and undergraduates were not included in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ghali S, Katti G, Shahbaz S, Katti C. Cone beam computed tomography: A boon for maxillofacial imaging. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2017;29:30.  Back to cited text no. 2
  [Full text]  
3.
Kamburoglu K, Kursun S, Akarslan ZZ. Dental students' knowledge and attitudes towards cone beam computed tomography in Turkey. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2011;40:439-43.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Diwakar NR, Kamakshi SS. Recent advancements in dental digital radiography. Nagaraj T, editor. J Med Radiol Pathol Surg 2015;1:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shah N, Bansal N, Logani A. Recent advances in imaging technologies in dentistry. World J Radiol 2014;6:794-807.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kumar M, Shanavas M, Sidappa A, Kiran M. Cone beam computed tomography-know its secrets. J Int Oral Health 2015;7:64-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Roshene R, Kumar JV. Awareness of CBCT among the Final Years and Interns-A Pilot Study. J Med Sci Clin Res 2016;4:10375-80.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Shetty SR, Castelino RL, Babu SG, Rangare A. Knowledge and attitude of dentists towards cone beam computed tomography in Mangalore – A questionnaire survey. Austin J Radiol 2015;2: 1016.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Balabaskaran K. Awareness and attitude among dental professional towards CBCT. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2013;10:55-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yalcinkaya SE, Berker YG, Peker S, Basturk FB. Knowledge and attitudes of Turkish endodontists towards digital radiology and cone beam computed tomography. Niger J Clin Pract 2014;17:471-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
11.
Scarfe WC, Farman AG, Sukovic P. Clinical applications of cone-beam computed tomography in dental practice. J Can Dent Assoc 2006;72:75-80.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Whaites E, Drage N. Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology. 5th ed. London, England: Churchill Livingstone; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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