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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 120-126

Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions

Department of Dentistry Research, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Date of Web Publication19-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Guilherme Anziliero Arossi
Department of Dentistry Research, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rio Grande do Sul
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.169825

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Objective: To evaluate the influence of finishing/polishing methods and staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were fabricated using a stainless steel mold and polyester strips. The samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the finishing and polishing performed: Control group (no surface treatment was performed), Diamond Pro group, Diamond burs group, Enhance group, and SiC paper group. After finishing and polishing, six samples from each group were immersed in coffee, red wine, or water for 30 days. The color measurements were obtained using digital photography before immersion and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. The red, green, and blue values provided by the Adobe Photoshop software were converted into CIELab values. A three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05). Results: The finishing and polishing methods, staining solutions, immersion times, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change (P = 0.00). Coffee and red wine caused intense staining. Among the polishing methods, the highest color change value was observed in the control group (P < 0.05) and the Diamond Pro disks provided the most stain-resistant surfaces (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The finishing and polishing method, staining solution, and immersion time influences the color stability. Finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

Keywords: Composite resin, dental polishing, pigmentation

How to cite this article:
Polli MJ, Arossi GA. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions. J Dent Res Rev 2015;2:120-6

How to cite this URL:
Polli MJ, Arossi GA. Effect of finishing and polishing on the color stability of a composite resin immersed in staining solutions. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Aug 10];2:120-6. Available from: https://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2015/2/3/120/169825

  Introduction Top

The clinical use of composite resins has expanded considerably due to increased esthetic demands by patients. The failure or success of any esthetic restoration depends on the color match and the color stability of the material.[1] The color stability of composite resins depends on several extrinsic and intrinsic factors.[2] The intrinsic factors include the discoloration of the resin material itself, such as the alteration of the resin matrix and the interface of the matrix and fillers. Extrinsic factors include staining by absorption and adsorption of colorants as a result of contamination from exogenous sources; the extent of discoloration may be associated with dietary habits that usually include ingestion of a wide range of staining foods and beverages.[2],[3]

Several studies have demonstrated that beverages such as coffee, tea, red wine, and other beverages have varying degrees of staining effect on light-cured composite resins.[2],[4],[5],[6],[7] The stain potential of these beverages varies according to their composition and characteristics.[2],[5],[7],[8] Coffee and wine are frequently ingested and contain many pigments. The main staining pigments are the anthocyanins, which comprise the largest group of water-soluble pigments and are responsible for a wide variety of colors such as orange, red, purple, and blue. The color expressed is dependent on the interaction of the water-soluble pigment with other phenolic compounds and the pH of the environment.[9],[10]

Proper finishing and polishing of dental restoratives are important clinical procedures that enhance the esthetics and longevity of restorations.[1] These procedures can influence the surface roughness of composite restorations, which depends on the microstructure created by the different finish and polishing treatments.[11],[12],[13] The microstructure thus has a major influence on plaque accumulation, wear, discoloration, and the esthetic appearance of restorations.[1] Finishing and polishing procedures require the sequential application of a variety of instruments, generally with gradually smaller-grained abrasives, in order to achieve a smooth surface.[14] Instruments such as diamond burs, carbide burs, polishing disks, rubber points, and polishing pastes are available and frequently used for sequential finishing and polishing.[1],[14]

Many studies have reported that different finishing and polishing procedures may influence in the color stability of composite resins.[4],[6],[15],[16] Finishing the composite surface with a polyester strip alone may produce the smoothest surface,[13],[17],[18] but it also results in less color stability than polished surfaces.[6],[15],[16] Therefore, it can be concluded that composite resins should be finished and polished because doing so results in greater stain resistance. It is clinically important to determinate the best finishing and polishing procedures for obtaining a stain-resistant surface. The best procedures are also those that can be carried out as quickly as possible with the fewest number of instruments.

In routine esthetic procedures, color matching is performed visually. However, assessing color changes exclusively by visual determination is a subjective, poorly reproducible process.[19] Reproducible color measurements can only be achieved using standardized color-quantifying methods such as spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and image analysis techniques.[19] Computer analysis of photographic images has been used in several studies that evaluate color changes,[3],[20],[21],[22],[23] constituting an efficient method that provides objective, quantifiable, and reproducible results.

This in vitro study evaluated the influence of different finishing and polishing methods and the effect of staining solutions using different immersion periods on the color stability of a microhybrid composite resin.

  Materials and Methods Top

Specimen preparation

A microhybrid composite resin Opallis was used in this study. Ninety disk specimens (n = 6) of 4 mm in diameter and 4 mm of thickness were prepared using a stainless steel mold.

The mold was placed on a steel slab covered by a polyester strip (Waldent, Pepasil Ind e Com Ltda, Jaboatão, PE, Brazil); two 2-mm-thick layers of resin were placed in the mold covered with a polyester strip. Another steel slab was applied over the polyester strip before photo-activation (Optilight LD Max, Gnatus Produtos Médicos e Odontológicos, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil), to flatten the surfaces. The disk specimens were light-cured for 20 s through the polyester matrix with the light tip of approximately 1 mm from the specimens. After curing, all specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h in black containers.

Finishing and polishing

[Table 1] shows the composition, batch numbers, and manufacturers of the materials used in this study, the specimens were randomly divided into five groups of eighteen specimens each according to the different surface finishing and polishing procedures:
Table 1: Composition, manufactures and batch numbers of the materials

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  • Control Group: No polishing procedure was applied
  • Diamond Pro Group: Sequential use of Diamond Pro disks (coarse, medium, fine, and extra fine) for 15 s each with circular movements and without water cooling
  • Diamond burs Group: Fine (3195F) and ultrafine (3195FF) diamond burs applied for 20 s each, moved in a single direction across the entire specimen surface with water cooling, followed by Diamond R polishing paste applied for 15 s using a felt polishing disk
  • Enhance Group: Enhance disk applied for 30 s with circular movements and without water cooling
  • SiC paper Group: 100-grit SiC paper applied manually for 30 s moved in a single direction across the entire specimen surface.

To reduce variability, all sample preparation and polishing procedures were performed by the same properly trained operator.

Staining solutions

Two different solutions served as staining agents in this study: Nescafé soluble coffee (Nestlé, Vevey, Switzerland) and Moura Basto red wine (Enoport United Wines, Rio Maior, Portugal), alcoholic strength of 13%. Distilled water served as the control solution.

Specimens of each finishing and polishing group were randomly divided (n = 6) and immersed in one of the three solutions (coffee, red wine, or distilled water) and stored in black containers for 30 days. The coffee was prepared by dissolving 1.5 g of coffee in 50 mL of boiling water. Every day the solutions were replaced, and the specimens were washed with distilled water and dried with absorbent paper before the new immersion.

Color measurements

Color measurements of the sample surfaces were obtained using digital image analysis. Triplicate digital photographs were taken in a dark room using a Canon DS126151 (Canon, Inc., Õta, Tokyo, Japan), ISO 1600, M 1/100 F 11 digital camera without flash fixed 20 cm above the specimens using a tripod. The specimens were placed on a rubber dam (opaque side) and illuminated using two 18-W fluorescent lamps located laterally. All conditions of standardization were maintained throughout the experiment. Photographs were taken before immersion (baseline) and after 7, 15, and 30 days of immersion. Before each evaluation, the disk specimens were washed with distilled water and dried with absorbent paper.

The images were stored in JPEG format and red, green, and blue (RGB) values were measured with Adobe Photoshop CC software (Adobe Systems, Inc., San José, CA, USA) using the histogram tool, which measures each image pixel selected by assigning a numerical value for RGB. The entire surface of each sample was selected using the “Quick Selection Tool” within the Adobe Photoshop software. The RGB values were converted to Lab values using Color Slide Rule software (Axiphos GmbH, Lörrach, Germany). The CIELAB system is an approximately uniform color space with coordinates for lightness, namely white/black (L*), red/green (a*), and yellow/blue (b*).

The selection among the three images for each group considered luminance values provided by the rubber dam. One central portion of the rubber dam was selected (15 mm × 15 mm), and the RGB values were obtained and converted to Lab values; images with L values more approximate were selected.

To select among images taken in triplicate, the L* value of the rubber dam was the parameter evaluated since the analyzed values of a* and b* did not change between the images taken.

Color changes were calculated from the L*, a*, and b* values for each specimen and expressed as Δ E* in order to compare the values before and after the storage treatment by applying the formula

Statistical analysis

A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the statistical software SPSS 17.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to evaluate the effects of polishing systems, staining agents, and immersion time on the color change values, including the possibility of interaction of the three factors. The means were then compared by the Tukey honest significant difference test (α = 0.05).

  Results Top

According to ANOVA, the polishing system, staining agent, immersion time, and their interaction had statistically significant effects on the color change values of the composite resin (P< 0.05).

[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4] present the means and standard deviations of the color changes (ΔE) and group differences according to the polishing method and immersion time for the tested substances.
Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation values of color changes (ΔE) of the composite resin according the polishing systems and immersion times stored in distilled water

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Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation values of color changes (ΔE) of the composite resin according the polishing systems and immersion times stored in coffee

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Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation values of color changes (ΔE) of the composite resin according the polishing systems and immersion times stored in red wine

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The specimens stored in water [Table 2] did not exhibit significant color changes at 7 days (P > 0.05), regardless of the polishing group tested. However, the control group during the 15- and 30-day period and the Diamond Pro and SiC paper groups during the 30-day period showed significant color changes (P < 0.05).

Considering the immersion periods, the control group and the SiC paper group showed a significant increase in staining when stored in coffee [Table 3] and red wine [Table 4] (P < 0.05). However, the control group immersed in red wine for 15 and 30 days (P = 0.64) did not show statistically significant increase in staining.

The Diamond Pro, Diamond burs, and Enhance groups exhibited no statistically significant increase in staining according to the immersion time (P > 0.05) [Table 3] and [Table 4]. However, the Diamond burs group immersed in coffee for 30 days showed a significant increase in staining as compared to that at 7 days of immersion (P = 0.01).

The control group showed the highest color change value as compared to others groups tested (P < 0.05) [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4] except when immersed in water for 7 days.

The Diamond Pro group stored in coffee and red wine exhibited the most significant color stability as compared with other groups (P < 0.05) [Table 3] and [Table 4] except when compared to specimens polished with diamond burs and immersed in red wine for 7 days (P = 0.83) and 30 days (P = 0.15).

The Diamond burs group showed more color stability as compared to the Enhance group after storage in coffee and red wine (P < 0.05) [Table 3] and [Table 4] except when immersed in red wine for 15 days (P = 0.051).

The SiC paper group showed more of a color change in red wine as compared with the other polishing groups tested [Table 4] except for the control group, whereas in coffee, the enhance group presented the highest color change value (P < 0.05) [Table 3].

[Table 5] presents the means and standard deviations of Δ E and group differences according to staining solution for the polishing methods tested using an immersion period of 30 days.
Table 5: Mean and Standard Deviation values of color changes (ΔE) of the composite resin according the staining solutions and polishing systems in experimental time of 30 days

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The least significant color change among all the polishing groups tested [Table 5] was observed for water. The most significant color change in the control and SiC paper groups occurred in red wine, whereas coffee was the solution that caused the most significant color change in the Diamond Pro, Diamond burs, and Enhance groups (P < 0.05).

  Discussion Top

There are many studies reporting the susceptibility of resin materials to staining after immersion in solutions such as coffee,[2], 3, [24],[25],[26] red wine,[3],[26],[27] teas,[2],[26],[27],[28],[29] soft drinks,[25],[26],[28] and juices.[5],[7],[20],[30] Coffee and red wine are widely consumed products and were therefore selected as colorants in this study.

According to Güler et al.,[24] the average time for the consumption of one cup of coffee is 15 min, and among coffee drinkers, the average consumption is 3.2 cups/day. Therefore, 30 days of storage, as used in the present study, simulated the staining produced by 30 months of regular coffee drinking.

Color measurements using methods such as spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and image analysis techniques produce objective, quantifiable, and reproducible results.[19] Jarad et al.[20] observed a highly significant correlation between the spectrophotometer and digital camera for all L*, a*, and b* color coordinates, to obtain the values from color digital photographs, the RGB values were measured with Adobe Photoshop and converted to Lab values using color conversion software. The data presented in [Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4],[Table 5] used the same method, once Adobe Photoshop read values of L (brightness) on a scale from 0 to 256 rather than from 0 to 100 scale used by CIELab.[20] However, authors as Dozic et al.[21] used the Lab scale provided by Adobe Photoshop to determine the color change values.

The Lab values are critically dependent on the light source, and the flash of a digital camera cannot evenly distribute light in all directions.[20] In this study, therefore, pictures were taken in a dark room using illumination from fluorescent lamps, as according to a study by Subramanya and Muttagi.[22]

Water absorption seems to affect the optical properties of composites in terms of their susceptibility to extrinsic stain and degradation. Water may decrease the durability of composite resins by expanding and plasticizing the organic matrix, which creates microcracks [25] and a high level of porosity that may facilitate fluid transport into and out of the polymer.[7],[31] Thus, water may act as a vehicle for dye penetration.[7]

In addition, significant staining is generally associated with the hydrophilic nature of the composite matrix.[2],[32] Hydrophobic materials are stained by hydrophobic solutions, and hydrophilic materials with high water absorption are stained by hydrophilic colorants in aqueous solutions.[2] The type of monomer in the resin was found to be another factor responsible for increased staining. Resins having higher concentrations of triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were more prone to color change. This monomer has a highly hydrophilic nature, which increases water and other fluid sorption.[4],[24] The composite used in this study contained TEGDMA [Table 1], which may have increased the ability of the samples to absorb water, thus increasing their susceptibility to staining. This would explain results such as the increase in ΔE of specimens immersed in water [Table 1]. In the control and SiC paper groups [Table 1], the color changes probably occurred owing to water absorption by the composite resin, which changes the light reflection inside the material and promotes departure of soluble materials from the resin matrix.[29] This result is consistent with other studies,[5],[6],[7],[28] in which a significant increase in color change values was observed when composite resins were immersed in water and in samples that remained dried, no color change was observed.[7] There was also a gradual increase in staining of the composite resin when samples were not subjected to finishing and polishing.[28] Costa e Silva et al.[5] investigated different beverages and found that the higher color change value in Opallis composite resin was caused by storage in water.

In the present study, all samples showed significant staining after immersion in coffee and red wine. This result is in agreement with many studies.[15],[24],[26],[28] For example, Güler et al.[24] observed that specimens immersed in coffee and the red wine showed significant staining, even after 24 h immersion.[24] These results suggest the need for systematic repolishing of restorations in patients who consume coffee and red wine as repolishing is able to significantly decrease the staining caused by coffee and red wine.[25],[27]

The colorants polarity can determine its degree of composite penetration. Less polar colorants may be easily absorbed inside the material, whereas more polar colorants tend to be adsorbed on the surface of the material.[2] Coffee has yellow colorants with different polarities, and discoloration is caused by absorption of polar colorants in the materials, probably due to the compatibility of the composite polymer-phase matrix with the yellow colorants of coffee.[2] Fujita et al.[26] observed the presence of cracks on the surface of a composite along the matrix/filler interface after immersion in red wine; in addition, in hybrid resins, a layer of adsorbed substances was observed on the surface of the composite. Specimens immersed in coffee had no apparent surface degradation, but many amorphous substances absorbed on the surface were found, which indicates that red wine and coffee have different staining mechanisms. In the Diamond Pro, Enhance, and Diamond burs groups, coffee colorant penetration may be more intense, causing more staining than the staining caused by adsorption of wine pigments. The most significant staining caused by wine was seen in the control and SiC paper groups, which may be related to the greater surface area available for the adsorption of wine pigments. Once the surface created by the polyester strip is more susceptible to degradation, mainly by the action of alcohol, as compared to the polished specimens.[13],[17]

Alcohol changes the composite resin surface [26],[33],[34] by degradation of the polymer chain, resulting in the partial loss of filler particles on the surface material.[31] This provides an extensive area for the adsorption of wine pigments, thereby leading to intense staining. Low-pH drinks affect the quality of the composite surface, causing chemical erosion [35] and promoting increased color changes as.[7],[8],[30],[35] According to Okte et al.,[8] the storage of composites in alcoholic solutions such as red wine and in low-pH drinks such as red wine and coffee causes surface degradation, which may increase the susceptibility of the composite to intense staining, as observed in this study.

In this study, the samples subjected to finishing and polishing procedures – the Diamond Pro, Diamond burs, and Enhance groups – generally exhibited a higher color change value when stored in coffee and red wine for 7 days,[5] probably caused by the greater water absorption that occurs during this period.[36] This increased staining was followed by color stabilization or a slower increase in staining.[5] In the control group and SiC paper group, immersion in coffee and wine resulted in a gradual increase in staining until the end of the experiment. This result is in agreement with those of other studies,[26],[27],[28] which reported a gradual increase in staining over a 4-week period [26] after composites were immersed in red wine and coffee; and over a 3-month period,[28] after immersion in coffee for samples that were not subject to polishing. These findings indicate that surfaces rich in an organic resin layer, as obtained by the polyester strip, or those exhibiting significant roughness, as with the SiC paper, are more susceptible to the action of colorants, which emphasizes the importance of clinical finishing and polishing procedures.

Several studies have shown that the smoothest surface is obtained when the resin is polymerized against a polyester strip.[13],[17],[33] However, this smooth surface is rich in organic matrix [11] and presents a lower microhardness than polished surfaces, probably because this resin-rich layer has poor physical and mechanical properties.[13],[17],[22] Our findings agree with those of other studies.[4],[6],[15],[16] The specimens finished with a polyester strip showed the most intense staining, probably due to a high resin concentration on the surface, making the specimens more susceptible to water and colorant absorption.[15] Therefore, removal of this resin layer by finishing and polishing produces a harder, more stain-resistant surface, and thus a more esthetically stable surface.[11],[15]

Many studies agree that finishing and polishing with sequential disks produces the lowest surface roughness,[6],[12],[13],[14],[37] even though some studies showed no significant difference between aluminum oxide disks and one-step polishing systems.[13],[17] In this study, the Diamond Pro group exhibited greater color stability in all the solutions tested, which is in agreement with Schmitt et al.[6] However, disks have limitations due to their geometry, which make them difficult to use for posterior teeth.

Rougher surfaces are produced by Diamond burs and Enhance points as compared with other methods.[12],[14],[37],[38] Reis et al.[38] observed that the use of Diamond burs produced scratches on the composite surface; Enhance points presented some surface pitting, which may have been due to plucking of the filler particles during polishing. In this study, the surfaces are polished with Diamond burs and polishing paste presented stain resistance, which may be explained by the decrease in surface roughness as compared with the roughness obtained using diamond burs alone, as observed by Barbosa et al.[11] This suggests that the diamond burs should not be used alone and that the use of pastes after applying diamond burs may increase the color stability because it reduces surface roughness.

The use of 100-grit SiC paper is not a clinical practice as it produces a surface with extensive roughness. However, it is possible to use SiC paper to compare the effects of roughness on the color change of composites. The SiC paper created a surface with poor color stability, but the surface was more resistance to staining as compared to the control group and the Enhance group in coffee, despite the high surface roughness. These findings emphasize the importance of removing the resin layer created and finished with polyester strip, which may have been insufficient in the Enhance group.

  Conclusion Top

The polishing methods, staining solutions, and immersion time were significant factors that influenced the color changes in a microhybrid resin composite. Staining solutions such as coffee and red wine produced significant color changes in the composite resin. Generally, higher color change value caused by storage in coffee and red wine was observed for 7 days of immersion, followed by color stabilization or a slower increase in staining. The polishing effects of sequential Diamond Pro disks promoted greater color stability than the other finishing and polishing methods tested. The highest color change value was obtained for the specimens finished by matrix strip. Therefore, finishing and polishing should be applied to obtain a more stain-resistant surface.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]

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