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   2015| January-March  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 8, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analysis of 261 avulsed permanent teeth of patients treated in a dental urgency service
Orlando Aguirre Guedes, ┴lvaro Henrique Borges, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, Cyntia Rodrigues de Ara˙jo Estrela, Ana Helena Gonšalves de Alencar, Carlos Estrela
January-March 2015, 2(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154644  
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects and clinical factors associated with avulsion of permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 261 avulsed teeth of 170 patients seen in the Dental School of the Federal University of Goiαs, Brazil, from 2000 to 2008. Result: The highest incidence was found among boys (71.18%) aged 6-15 years (61.18%). The main etiologic factors were falls (51.76%) and traffic accidents (29.41%). Most cases occurred in autumn (March to June; 31.18%) and winter (June to September; 27.65%). Most avulsed teeth were the maxillary central incisor (62.45%), followed by the maxillary lateral incisor (21.46%). A high proportion (67.23%) of injured teeth had a completely formed root apex. Replantation was used to treat 119 teeth (45.59%) in 86 patients. Most replantations were delayed (89.08%). Thirty-eight teeth (31.93%) were stored in dry media. Periodontal healing was found in 41 teeth (34.45%), inflammatory root resorption, in 44 (36.97%) and replacement root resorption, in 22 (18.49%). The most frequent treatments for replanted teeth were endodontic treatment and temporary filling of the root canal with calcium hydroxide (58.92%) and endodontic treatment and definitive root canal filling (26.89%). Conclusion: The epidemiological and clinical aspects of tooth avulsion in this study were similar to those reported in other studies. The number of replantation was low, the number of teeth stored in non-physiological conditions was high, and replantation was often delayed.
  2 2,800 352
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Wakhloo Tulika, Aradhya Kiran
January-March 2015, 2(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154652  
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited connective tissue disorders with widespread manifestations. The prevalence of this syndrome is 1:5000 worldwide without gender, racial or ethnic associations. This syndrome is characterized by joint hypermobility, dermal hyperelasticity and tissue fragility caused by mutations in genes encoding collagen type I, III, V and enzymes involved in the posttranslational modifications of collagen. The oral manifestations include increased mucosal fragility, delayed wound healing, early onset generalized periodontitis and temporomandibular joint hypermobility. Children presenting with this syndrome are often misdiagnosed for hematological problem as they present with bruising, malignancy and/or child abuse. A thorough assessment of the patient is, therefore, essential for early diagnosis and patient referral. This paper reviews current literature, oral manifestations, diagnostic investigations and effective dental management.
  2 10,539 736
EDITORIALS
Current aspects of scientific research publications in dentistry
Shankargouda Patil
January-March 2015, 2(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154633  
  1 1,366 188
GUEST EDITORIAL
Research: Science and knowledge
┴lvaro Henrique Borges
January-March 2015, 2(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154629  
  1 1,471 187
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study
Karan Bhargava, Tanaya Kumar, Shalini Aggarwal, Smita Zinzarde, Anita Sanap, Priyanka Patil
January-March 2015, 2(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154638  
Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO),Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO), Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO), Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.
  1 4,631 678
CASE REPORTS
Interdisciplinary management for restoration of function and esthetics in a patient with hereditary amelogenesis imperfecta
Sushma Dhiman, Saba Khan, Sandhya Maheshwari, Jay S Upadhyay
January-March 2015, 2(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154646  
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a type of the hereditary disorder which is expressed as a group of conditions causing developmental alterations in the structure of enamel. It is associated with a reduction of oral health-related quality-of-life, has an impact on psychological well-being, and leads to various physiological problems. Children or adults with AI express varying degree of malocclusions either in the form of crowding, impacted teeth, spacing, retained teeth, reduced vertical height due to abnormal tooth structure or undue tooth loss. Orthodontic treatment should precede esthetic rehabilitation. Proper diagnosis of the case is quintessential to provide durable functional and esthetic result to these patients, improving the quality of their lives. We present a case of interdisciplinary management for restoring function and esthetics in a patient with hereditary AI of the hypoplastic type accompanied with tooth impaction and some other dental anomalies.
  - 2,264 374
Taurodontism with oligodontia in a young female patient: A case report with a brief literature review
Santosh R Patil, Aileni Kaladhar Reddy
January-March 2015, 2(1):34-36
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154647  
Human dentition is affected by a wide variety of abnormalities, which include variation in the number, morphology and eruption sequence. Absence of tooth development manifests as anodontia, hypodontia, and oligodontia. Taurodontism is a developmental anomaly affecting the teeth leading to minimal or no constriction cement enamel junction level manifesting as long pulp spaces and also the trunk of the roots is displaced toward apex giving a rectangular shape to the involved tooth. Its commonly seen in permanent teeth is common and rarely in the deciduous dentition. Oligodontia is an uncommon genetic condition representing the congenital missing of six teeth or more in primary or permanent dentitions. This case report describes concomitant occurrence of tooth agenesis and taurodontism in a young Saudi girl and a brief review regarding the etiology, clinical features, and therapeutic aspects of have been mentioned.
  - 2,183 213
EDITORIALS
Research oriented toward international oral health policies, strategies, and plans
Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle
January-March 2015, 2(1):2-2
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154631  
  - 1,370 178
LETTER TO EDITOR
Recommendations for improvement of oral health awareness in pregnant women
Parisa Soltani
January-March 2015, 2(1):52-52
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154657  
  - 1,246 132
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of a comprehensive clinical dentistry course at dental schools in Saudi Arabia
Haidar Al-Alawi, Mahdi Al-Shayeb, Abdulfatah Al-Jawad, Ali Al-Ali, Amr Mahrous
January-March 2015, 2(1):5-9
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154635  
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate a Comprehensive Clinical Dentistry Course conducted at two dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in two dental schools: King Saud University (KSU) and University of Dammam (UOD). The study subjects were students (42 UOD and 30 KSU), patients (32 UOD and 46 KSU), and faculty members (8 UOD and 7 KSU). Evaluations were collected using self-administered surveys. Results: The response rates were 72%, 78%, and 32% for students, patients, and faculty members, respectively. The students' evaluations demonstrated that case acceptance by supervisors was one of the difficulties facing 57.14% of UOD students compared to 30% of KSU students. The majority of faculty members (39%) were restorative specialists (25% UOD, 42.86% KSU). The overall evaluation of UOD faculty members was fair (50%) or good to very good (50%). For KSU faculty members, the overall evaluation was good (50%) or very good (50%). The mean age of the patients was 33.26 years. The level of education of the study subjects was either secondary school (43.6%) or university level (35.9%). Most of the study subjects knew about the program from their friends (57.7%). Approximately 96.1% of the study subjects were satisfied with the overall treatment of students. Discussion: The fundamental aim of the students was to have their cases accepted as early as possible to complete requirements on time. Conclusion: Dental students displayed relatively high psychological stress in relation to case acceptance by their supervisors. Demonstrating good attitude and quality treatment can increase the flow of patients.
  - 2,178 221
Postures of pediatric dentists toward endodontic standards and acceptance of novel technology in Udaipur city: A questionnaire survey
Chirag M Raiyani, Ruchi Arora, Deepak P Bhayya
January-March 2015, 2(1):21-24
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154640  
Background: To ascertain the current clinical practice of pediatric dentists involves utilization of a variety of materials and recent technological advances. Materials and Methods: A total of 218 pediatric dentists (118 males and 100 females) were selected for the study those are registered in IDA Udaipur and surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to their year of experience in the clinical practice. A total of 11 structured questions presented through a pilot study done among the 10% of the total participant's related to endodontic procedure were used for the study. Frequency and percentage distribution were calculated. Results: The results showed that glass bead sterilization (41.3%) was the most commonly used method for sterilization. Isolation during the pulpectomy procedure performed using cotton rolls and suction tip (40.4%). Most of them used hand instruments (58.3%) among those; K-file (42.7%) was widely used. Radiographic method (53.7%) was most common procedure for determination of working length. Single sitting pulpectomy was not commonly preferred. Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that endodontic technology and materials for pulpectomy procedures are slowly being adapted in clinical practice in India. Therefore, pediatric dentist should update their knowledge and practice with current technology.
  - 2,151 209
Postdistraction stability of hypoplastic maxilla in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated using rigid external distraction device: An audit
Prasanna Kumar, NK Sahoo, Sanjeev Datana, ID Roy
January-March 2015, 2(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154639  
Introduction: Maxillary hypoplasia resulting in skeletal class III malocclusion is common among patients with cleft lip and palate. Large anteroposterior discrepancies and surgical scaring often leads to unpredictable stability of maxillary advancement with Le Fort I osteotomy and is known for a high degree of relapse. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the postdisraction stability after 1-year of maxillary advancement done with rigid external distraction (RED) device in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 cases treated with RED device used for distraction of maxilla in cleft lip and palate cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms selected were taken at the end of presurgical (T1), immediate postdistraction (T2) and 1-year postdistraction (T3). Five angular measurements and nine linear measurements were used to assess the position of maxilla in all three planes. P values were obtained for repeated measurement by analysis of variance with Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons. Normality was tested using Shapiro-Wilk's test. Results: The average 1-year postdistraction measurements (T3) did not differ significantly compared to the corresponding average postdistraction measurements (T2) (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Midface distraction with RED device provides a significant structural improvement for patients with cleft lip and palate. There was marked an improvement in dentofacial structures and results were stable during the retention phase.
  - 1,810 162
Assessment of learning preferences among dental students using Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic questionnaire: An institutional experience
Runki Saran, Saurabh Kumar, Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati
January-March 2015, 2(1):10-12
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154636  
Background and Objectives: Every individual has different learning style. As dental educators, it is necessary to recognize the fact that each dental student may have a preference of acquiring information and skill in one style over another. The objective of this study was to determine the learning style preferences of dental students using the Visual, Aural, Read-Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Materials and Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to 20 1 st year and 40 2 nd year dental students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University to determine their preferred mode of learning. Completed questionnaires were scored and tabulated to determine the distribution of VARK preferences. Results: Nearly 50% of 1 st year students were quadmodal whereas 55% of 2 nd year students were unimodal in which kinesthetic preference was dominant. Mean V and A scores were significantly higher for 1 st year than 2 nd year students. No significant gender difference was seen. Conclusion: The dental students in this study had varied learning preferences. As dental educators, we need to adopt different methods of teaching in order to reach most of the students and make the educational experience more productive.
  - 2,759 309
REVIEW ARTICLES
The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases
CC Azodo, P Erhabor
January-March 2015, 2(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154650  
The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
  - 7,698 1,642
Stem cells: A boon in dentistry
N Deepika, Sumana Devadiga, Tanveer Moidin, Sachin Mittal, Neha Koshal
January-March 2015, 2(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154654  
In recent years, there has been a remarkable interest in stem cells within the dental and medical community mainly because of their capability of self-renewal and multiple lineage differentiation. Due to its multipotent properties, stem cells have been employed in the regeneration of body parts and curing various diseases. Stem cells have been isolated from oral and maxillofacial region including tooth, gingiva, periodontium and oral mucosa. Stem cell research and therapy may be used as an alternative to current conventional methods of restoring tooth and craniofacial defects. The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of the different types of stem cells and their origin and characteristics features and its applications in dentistry. The literature search included PubMed, other indexed journals, and online material.
  - 2,167 243