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  Most popular articles (Since January 23, 2014)

 
 
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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Dental treatment in patients with cardiac pacemakers: Is it a risky affair?
Reet Kamal, Parveen Dahiya, Hans Raj Saini
April-June 2016, 3(2):76-78
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.184213  
Cardiac pacemakers are the implanted devices used to treat patients with damaged heart muscles. These electronic devices are sensitive to strong electromagnetic signals. The dental literature also included articles regarding electromagnetic interferences to pacemakers, due to dental devices such as ultrasonic scalers, electrosurgical unit, ultrasonic bath cleaners, and battery driven light cure composite unit. Although pacemakers of new generation have more protective features than those of past, but still precautionary measures should be taken in dental clinics for the safety of cardiac patients with pacemaker. The aim of this paper is to identify the possible sources from dental clinics which can adversely interfere with the pacemaker activity and to provide some guidelines for safe dental practice in this high-risk group.
  47,014 1,320 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of the metal post and fiber post in the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth
Roshan Uthappa, Deepika Mod, Pranav Kharod, S Pavitra, Kavita Ganiger, Hiral Kharod
April-June 2015, 2(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.161205  
Background: Post-retained crowns are indicated for endodontically treated teeth (ETT) with severely damaged coronal tissue. There are still controversies for the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest success rate. This clinical study compares the metal post and fiber post ins the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty endodontically treated and indicated for the post and core were selected for the study and divided into 2 groups equally. In, one group patient's teeth were restored by metal post, while other group patient's teeth were treated by fiber post. Comparative evaluation was done on follow-up of the patients on the basis of selected clinical and radiographical criteria. The results were compared using student's t test with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results: More number of failures was noted in patients whose teeth restored with the metal post as compared to those of the fiber post, both clinically as well as radiographically. (Student's t test, P < 0.01). Conclusion: From the present study, it was shown that fiber post retained restored teeth has less chances of failure as compared to that of metal post. But the results of the present study should be supported by carrying out study on large scale.
  17,045 1,666 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Methods for removal of resin remaining after debonding of orthodontic brackets: A literature review
Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Fausto Frizzera, Thiago Soares Porto, Keren Cristina Fagundes Jordão, Marcelo Ferrarezi de Andrade, Reidson Stanley Soares dos Santos, Rufino Jose Klug, Matheus Coelho Bandeca
May-August 2014, 1(2):105-107
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.133960  
The removal of resin debris and/or resin cement from the enamel surface without causing iatrogenic is the main objective when removing the orthodontic brackets. Some factors such as the time required for removal, damage to the tooth structure, are essential factors for the clinician at the time of removal. Various techniques are used for the removal of orthodontic brackets after the treatment; it is known that the use of clinical procedures such as the use of diamond burs and some pliers removers can damage the structure of the enamel, often depending on the bond strength that should be taken into consideration at the time of removal. This literature review aims to gather the most relevant studies that can clarify the clinical technique, which may be more suitable for removal of the brackets.
  16,707 0 1
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Diagnostic kits: An aid to periodontal diagnosis
Amit Mani, Raju Anarthe, PP Marawar, Rachita G Mustilwar, Anuradha Bhosale
July-September 2016, 3(3):107-113
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.194837  
Periodontal diseases have been diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examination traditionally, likewise the assessment of plaque using a plaque index, gingival inflammation with the bleeding on probing index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss. Recently, for more precise molecular diagnostics and treatments, chairside diagnostic kits are used. This review describes chairside diagnostic test kits available in the market that can facilitate the clinical examination and the establishment of a proper diagnosis.
  7,314 1,260 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Wakhloo Tulika, Aradhya Kiran
January-March 2015, 2(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154652  
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited connective tissue disorders with widespread manifestations. The prevalence of this syndrome is 1:5000 worldwide without gender, racial or ethnic associations. This syndrome is characterized by joint hypermobility, dermal hyperelasticity and tissue fragility caused by mutations in genes encoding collagen type I, III, V and enzymes involved in the posttranslational modifications of collagen. The oral manifestations include increased mucosal fragility, delayed wound healing, early onset generalized periodontitis and temporomandibular joint hypermobility. Children presenting with this syndrome are often misdiagnosed for hematological problem as they present with bruising, malignancy and/or child abuse. A thorough assessment of the patient is, therefore, essential for early diagnosis and patient referral. This paper reviews current literature, oral manifestations, diagnostic investigations and effective dental management.
  7,255 572 2
The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases
CC Azodo, P Erhabor
January-March 2015, 2(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154650  
The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understanding of roles of viruses in periodontal diseases will facilitate the provision of effective periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
  5,903 1,355 -
An insight into the future beckons of maxillofacial prosthodontics: Anaplastology
S Padmaja
April-June 2015, 2(2):91-96
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.161213  
It is the god given right of every human being to appear human. Few areas of dentistry offer more challenges to the technical skills or greater satisfaction for the successful rehabilitation of function and esthetics in the patient with gross anatomic defects and deformities of the maxillofacial region. Although remarkable advances in the surgical management of oral and facial defects, but cannot be satisfactorily repaired by plastic surgery alone. Hence, the demand for maxillofacial prosthetic devices for the rehabilitation of patients with congenital or acquired defects has intensified in recent years. This paper gives an insight into the latest innovations and improvisations in the field of maxillofacial prosthodontics.
  5,880 1,238 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Bleeding control measures during oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures: A systematic review
Ashwini R Akolkar, Deepak G Kulkarni, Khushal D Gangwani, Lakshmi Shetty, Shraddha P Channe, Pallavi H Sarve
October-December 2017, 4(4):79-89
DOI:10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_54_17  
Surgical bleeding can be associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality across all surgical areas. Thus, to avoid complications related to excessive bleeding, numerous products have been developed to achieve hemostasis. The thorough knowledge of these hemostatic measures is required for good results. The aim of the study is to compare the different methods to control bleeding in oral and maxillofacial surgery. An extensive systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Google search using combination of keywords such as bleeding, bleeding control methods, oral surgery, Gelfoam, vasoconstrictors, Chitosan, Floseal, haemcoagulase, Gelatin Sponge, Suturing, and Cautery. The inclusion criteria for the study were articles in English, articles published between January 1, 1990 to June 30, 2016, studies that provide information about bleeding control procedures, complications during head, neck, and face surgery procedures and hemostatic agent and articles based on observational studies and original articles. Exclusion criteria for the study were studies that provided inadequate information, systemic review, research papers, case reports, letters to editor and studies based on animals other than human beings. Total 11 articles were selected for the analysis which included head, face, and neck procedures with/without using bleeding control measures such as pressure application, suturing, cautery, ligation of blood vessel, application of Ankaferd blood stopper, chitosan, Floseal®, thrombin–gelatin matrix (Tissel®)/fibrin glue, Gelfoam, and tranexamic acid. Conventional methods are insufficient to control extensive bleeding. However, newer methods or combinations of these methods are required to achieve adequate hemostasis. All hemostatic measures were not covered in this review.
  5,293 1,274 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Trace elements in oral health and disease: An updated review
Noopur Kulkarni, Ketki Kalele, Meena Kulkarni, Rahul Kathariya
May-August 2014, 1(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.133959  
Enzymes of trace elements are an important part of certain biological and chemical reactions. They work in harmony with proteins and often with certain other co enzymes. They attract substrate molecules and enable their conversion to a specific end product. Some trace elements are involved in redox reactions. Modern day diet, comprising of refined foods is a cause of concern, as it may not have a sufficient amount of these trace elements. Dietary supplements may be of required to combat this shortage. The present paper has thoroughly discussed trace elements, as this area of research has not received the deserved attention. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of these trace elements is essential and significant for disease control and for maintaining optimal health.
  5,344 1,104 5
CASE REPORT
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of minor salivary gland in buccal mucosa: A rare case report
Deepak G. Kulkarni, Lakshmi Shetty, Vishal Zurange
May-August 2014, 1(2):97-99
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.133958  
Minor salivary gland carcinomas are rarely reported. Low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) that are of minor salivary gland origin occurrence in children and adolescents have rarely been reported, little information regarding their clinical features and biologic behavior is available. This case report represents minor salivary gland MECs in an 18-year-old female patient. She presented with swelling in the lower left buccal mucosa, which was noticed 1 year back gradually increased to its present size 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm in its greatest dimension buccally. The color of the lesion was pale pink however on the posterior aspect the swelling, which had a bluish tinge, gave a diagnostic dilemma. In children and adolescents, MECs have a female predilection and occur most commonly on the hard or soft palate or both and rare in buccal mucosa. The surgical excision of the swelling was successful with no recurrence reported.
  5,339 375 -
GUEST EDITORIALS
Genetics and its relation to pediatric dentistry
Sara Mohamed Hamid
October-December 2015, 2(4):147-148
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.176675  
  1,583 3,816 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Referral to a periodontist by a general dentist: An understanding of the referral process
Ashok Kumar Bhati
January-March 2016, 3(1):42-44
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.180120  
Periodontal disease is one of the most common health care problems. The type of treatment of periodontal disease depends on the diagnosis. The treatment plan should also focus on managing the risk factors and modifying factors which affect the periodontal disease and treatment. The evidence-based advancements have given a success predictability level to the periodontal diagnosis and treatment plan. The level of specialty education is limited in the curriculum for undergraduates. Patients should receive the same quality of treatment whether administered by a specialist or general practitioner. Therefore, general dentists need to be well informed about how to make timely and appropriate referrals to periodontists when necessary. An online literature search was done through PubMed, PMC, and open access journals to understand the referral process. Articles pertaining to referral process were selected. Based on the search, it was found that knowledge of elements of the referral process, conditions (general and periodontal) requiring referral, and selection of periodontist are important aspects of the referral process. This short communication will help the general dentist to understand the referral process that will enable them to provide the timely periodontal referral and treatment to the patients.
  4,975 411 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health maintenance and treatment modalities for their children
Pooja Bodhale, Swati Karkare, Shivaji Khedkar
January-April 2014, 1(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/2348-3172.126161  
Background and Aim: Parents have an important role in making decisions about their child's oral health. The purpose of this study was to determine parental awareness of their children's oral health maintenance and their attitude toward dental treatment. Materials and Methods: Total 284 parents from different socioeconomic groups participated in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge and attitude of parents toward oral health and treatment modalities. Results: Awareness among parents was significantly lower in low socioeconomic group. Their attitude toward dental treatment differed significantly in which only 53% parents from high socioeconomic group preferred going to the pediatric dentist. Conclusion: The level of awareness among parents is relatively low and there is need for the implementation of oral health awareness programs for parents to change their attitude toward dental treatment of their children.
  4,641 728 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
A critical review of periodontal prognosis and tooth loss
Georgios A Kotsakis, Udatta Kher
January-April 2014, 1(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/2348-3172.126164  
During the incipient steps of periodontal treatment, clinicians are usually asked to predict the prognosis of teeth with compromised periodontium. The aim of this literature review was to investigate the association between periodontal prognosis and tooth loss. This review article is structured in three sections: The early definition of questionable prognosis, a new classification for assigning Prognosis: The McGuire and Nunn studies, and Contemporary views on periodontal prognosis. Results showed that the definition of good prognosis has much higher predictability than the one for questionable prognosis. Several risk indicators for tooth loss are discussed as well as different definitions of questionable prognosis and their success in predicting tooth loss. In conclusion, the major focus of future studies should be to construct simplified prognostic models with high predictability that will increase the confidence of dentists and periodontists when assigning teeth prognosis.
  4,586 739 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Guided tooth eruption: Comparison of open and closed eruption techniques in labially impacted maxillary canines
SM londhe, Prasanna Kumar, Sanjeev Datana, Atul Kotwal, Vivek Saxena
September-December 2014, 1(3):148-151
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.146495  
Background: After third molars, the maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted permanent teeth and one-third of these are labial impactions. Impacted canines often require orthodontic guidance in the eruption. This study was conducted to assess the posttreatment results of surgically exposed and orthodontically aligned labially impacted maxillary canines comparing two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases, a surgical phase and an orthodontic phase. In surgical phase, events during surgical exposure and recovery of 31 patients with labially impacted maxillary canine were recorded. Patients were managed with open and closed eruption technique. The assessment included comparison of two techniques of surgical exposure, postoperative pain, mobility, vitality, periodontal health, level of impaction, and duration of orthodontic treatment. Results: The postoperative recovery was longer after open eruption than close eruption technique (P = 0.000). Postoperative pain experienced by patients was similar, but regression of pain was faster in closed eruption technique. The mean surgical time for open eruption technique was lesser when compared with closed eruption technique (P = 0.000). The total duration of orthodontic treatment was directly dependent upon the level of impaction, with deeper level of impaction having longer duration of orthodontic treatment. The mobility and vitality of guided canine was similar in both techniques. Conclusion: The closed eruption technique was a longer surgical procedure, but the postoperative pain regression was faster. The duration of orthodontic treatment was longer with deeper level of impaction. The closed eruption surgical techniques provide better periodontal tissues around the guided erupted teeth.
  4,694 546 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Maxillofacial osteoradionecrosis
Amit T Suryawanshi, S. N. Santhosh Kumar, RS Dolas, Ruchi Khindria, Vivek Pawar, Manju Singh
January-April 2014, 1(1):42-49
DOI:10.4103/2348-3172.126171  
Osteoradionecrosis is a severe and delayed radiation-induced injury, characterized by bone tissue necrosis and failure to heal. Cases of osteoradionecrosis present to the clinician with features of pain, drainage, and fistulation of the mucosa or skin related to exposed bone in the previously irradiated area. The tumour size and location, radiation dose, occurrence of local trauma, dental extractions, infection, immune defects, and malnutrition are predisposing factors. A better understanding of risk factors leading to the development osteoradionecrosis and of the underlying pathophysiology may improve the ability of the clinician to prevent the occurrence and help improve the prognosis of this complication. Although the frequency of osteoradionecrosis has declined since the introduction of newer methods of radiotherapy, this review focuses on the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, radiological features, diagnosis, and treatment modalities including the newer modalities.
  4,607 583 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Outcome of zinc oxide eugenol paste as an obturating material in primary teeth pulpectomy: A systematic review
Harsha S Nalawade, Gauri S Lele, Hrishikesh Walimbe
October-December 2017, 4(4):90-96
DOI:10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_65_17  
The aim of this systematic review is to use the principles of evidence-based dentistry to evaluate the outcome of zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) paste as an obturating material in primary teeth pulpectomies. Moderate-to-high success rates are reported with ZOE in preserving chronically infected primary teeth. However, it fails to meet many of the criteria for an ideal obturating material. Databases searched were PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar. Articles published between January 1, 1993, and June 30, 2016, with in vivo studies for obturating materials in primary teeth pulpectomy with placement of preformed crown, reporting follow-up period of at least 12 months with clinical and radiographic success rates were selected for this review. In total, 122 articles were retrieved. After the removal of duplicates and screening, full-text articles were analyzed; of which eight articles were selected for the systematic review. No significant difference was seen in the outcome of obturating materials used in comparison with ZOE in the included studies. Outcomes of ZOE paste obtained with clinical and radiographic evaluation were similar when compared to the newer combinations of materials available for obturating primary teeth today. More number of randomized controlled clinical trials for primary teeth pulpectomies with at least 12 months follow-up period and placement of crown as final restoration need to be carried out for testing the newer materials in comparison with ZOE to conclude a suitable alternative obturating material.
  4,199 689 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessing the effect of pomegranate fruit seed extract mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation
Farin Kiany, Hossein Niknahad, Mohammad Niknahad
October-December 2016, 3(4):117-123
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.200016  
Background: Utilizing natural products in the prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases has been increased recently and could be of benefit to low-socioeconomic level communities. Mouthwashes are very useful in the reduction of microbial plaque and gingival inflammation. Pomegranate (Punica granatum ) is an essential medicinal plant with various pharmacological properties. In this study, the efficacy of a mouthwash prepared from the extract of pomegranate fresh fruit, was evaluated in the reduction of dental plaque and gingival bleeding. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four participants diagnosed as mild to moderate gingivitis participated in this double-blind clinical trial. Two weeks after thorough scaling and root planing, the participants were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group 1 - Persica, Group 2 - Matrica, Group 3 - pomegranate mouthwashes, and Group 4 - placebo. The participants were instructed to use the prescribed mouthwashes, twice daily, for 1 month. Pomegranate mouthwash was prepared from seeds of fresh pomegranate fruit. Periodontal parameters including plaque and bleeding indices were assessed at baseline (2 weeks after Phase I of treatment) and 1 month after using mouthwashes. Results: Comparison of the plaque index showed a significant reduction from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in reduction of plaque when comparing four groups. Assessment of the bleeding on probing revealed a significant decrease from baseline to 1 month in all groups (P < 0.05). The three herbal mouthwashes reduced the bleeding index significantly more than the placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pomegranate mouthwash was beneficial in improving gingival status, including reducing plaque and bleeding indices. Its effect was comparable to two routinely used herbal mouthwashes.
  3,052 1,792 -
CASE REPORTS
Attachments: Boon to preventive prosthodontics: Two case reports
Aman Arora, Viram Upadhayaya, Itanshu Goyal, Ashima Chowdry
September-December 2014, 1(3):152-156
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.146496  
To plan and execute rehabilitation of a decimated dentition is probably one of the most intellectually and technically demanding tasks faced by any prosthodontist. Attachments are small interlocking devices, which are used to connect prosthesis and abutments that offer a variety of solutions to challenge of balance between functional stability and cosmetic appeal. This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary approach for complete oral rehabilitation of a patient with few remaining natural teeth using precision attachment (ceka Preci-Clix Radicular RC) for mandibular overdenture and semi precision attachment (ceka revax extracoronal and ceka vertix) for maxillary cast partial denture.
  4,018 622 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Robotics in dentistry: Fiction or reality
B Divya Bhat, Shruthi Bhandary, Rajaram Naik, Divya Shetty
July-September 2017, 4(3):67-68
DOI:10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_55_17  
Robots, the most wonderful invention of human being, have made its way into dentistry. The necessary technologies have been developed and experimented which would help it to be adapted in dentistry. With unmatched precision and ability to work without fatigue, robots are the most useful applications of robotic technology. The main aim of this paper is to review the application of robotics in dentistry.
  4,032 544 -
EDITORIAL
Resurgence of syphilis: Challenges for dental care providers
Anil Sukumaran
October-December 2016, 3(4):115-116
DOI:10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_4_17  
  1,742 2,787 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Oral hygiene awareness among school children of rural Mangalore
Ananth Kamath, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle, Hrishikesh Walimbe, Vishwas Patil
January-April 2014, 1(1):7-9
DOI:10.4103/2348-3172.126156  
Aim: The aim of the survey was to assess awareness regarding oral hygiene practice amongst children toward oral health in rural population of Mangalore city. Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out among 2636 children (boys: 1508 and girls: 1128) who were in the age group of 5-12 years studying in various schools of rural Mangalore. Data on oral hygiene practice were collected by means of self-administered questionnaire. Results: This survey found that 52% children brush their teeth twice a day and 98.9% children brushed in horizontal direction. Other oral hygiene aids were sparsely used (5.3%). None of the school children had any form of interactive sessions on oral hygiene practice with their respective class teacher. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that basic oral hygiene knowledge and practice of the study participants was good but advanced knowledge needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs and awareness amongst teachers are needed to improve oral health of school children.
  3,925 586 -
Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dermatologically diseased patients: A cross-sectional study in Meerut
Tanushree Keswani, Sreenivasan Venkatraman, B. S. Rathore, K. Nagaraju, Sumit Goel, Swati Gupta
May-August 2014, 1(2):81-85
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.133944  
Introduction: It is a noted fact that dermatologic diseases have varied oral manifestations. By far, there have been inordinately few studies focusing on the prevalence of a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions (OML) in patients with dermatologic diseases. This is significant as oral lesions may be the only or the primary feature of the skin disease, which could be neglected by dentists. This study aimed to estimate the frequency and sociobehavioral correlates of OML in skin disease patients attending outpatient's facility of Subharti Hospital, Dermatology Clinic, Meerut, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in Meerut during the period from August 2013 to October 2013. A total of 500 patients (mean age 37.2 ± 14.11 years, 41.4% females) completed an oral examination and a personal interview. OML were recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (version 15.0.1). Cross tabulation and Chi-square with Fisher's exact test were used. Results: At least one kind of OML was registered in 11.8%, males (58.6%): 60.0% versus females (40.0%): 45.6%, P < 0.01) skin disease patients. Thus, a certain number of patients had more than one type of OML. Aphthae were the most frequently diagnosed OML (3.4%), followed in descending order by oral lichen planus (1.8%) and geographic tongue (1.6%). Conclusion: OML were frequently diagnosed in skin disease patients (11.80%) and varied systematically with the dermatologic disease, age, and gender. The substantial prevalence rates of OML emphasize the importance of routine examination of the oral mucosa in a dermatology clinic.
  4,102 310 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study
Karan Bhargava, Tanaya Kumar, Shalini Aggarwal, Smita Zinzarde, Anita Sanap, Priyanka Patil
January-March 2015, 2(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/2348-2915.154638  
Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO),Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO), Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO), Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.
  3,728 583 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Prevalence of anterior gingival recession and related factors among Saudi adolescent males in Abha City, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia
Hossam E Eid
January-April 2014, 1(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2348-3172.126160  
Background: Gingival recessions (GR) are asymptomatic and develop slowly, it can be localized or generalized, and be associated with one or more surfaces. Age is a variable that several authors have found associated with gingival recession. This study aimed to evaluate gingival recession clinically and related variables in a population of Saudi adolescent males, Southwestern of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 250 Saudi adolescent males aged between 12 and 18 years. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using University of Michigan '0' probe with William's markings, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk-related factors. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: Out of 250 patients, 73.00% ± 8.97% were presented with gingival recession (GR) and 27.00% ± 4.11% without GR. The highest number 56 (22.4%) of patients were presented with GR and 8.4% without GR in the age group of 14 years. Then chronologically, 17.6% and 9.6%, 16.4% and 0.4%, 12.4% and 1.6%, and 0.8% and 0% patients were evident with and without GR of 15-, 17-, 16- and 18-years age groups, respectively. 22.25% ± 42.52% patients had GR in the upper left central incisors. Whereas, 17.25% ± 15.52%, 11.75% ± 17.48%, and 1.5% ± 1.91% patients were presented with GR in upper right central incisors, upper-left lateral incisors and upper-right lateral incisors, respectively. 50.4% ± 3.63% and 1.2% ± 0.31% having or not GR, respectively, who were not cleaning teeth at all. Toothbrush users had GR 28.8% ± 4.52% and 18% ± 2.84% without GR. Miswak and both aids users had or not GR were 18.8% ± 3.35%, 0.4% ± 0.15%, and 3.2% ± 0.49% and 4.4% ±1.13%, respectively. (51.6% ± 7.29%) of patients had GR without anterior crowding rather than the patients with anterior crowding (21.2 ± 3.49%). The highest percentage (38.4% ± 5.95%) of patients had GR having normal frenal attachments (Grade 0), whereas, in Grade 2, 1, and 3, patients had GR 34.8% ± 4.68%, 23.6% ± 3.08%, and 13.6% ± 2.20%, respectively. Interestingly, GRs were present in all patients who had habits of both smoking and tobacco use (8.4% ± 2.83%). Conclusion: The results of this study proved that neglecting oral hygiene is the most common cause behind increase the gingival recession among adolescents.
  3,873 348 1