• Users Online: 421
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
DPU: INTERDISCIPLINARY CONFERENCE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 69-71

Effects of yogic eye exercises for myopia among students


1 Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication26-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Roopa Desai
Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_68_19

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Objective: To find the effectiveness of yogic eye exercises for myopia and to find whether there is reduction in eye power of individuals after sessions of yoga. Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted. Ninety-six participants diagnosed as myopia by ophthalmologist were included in the study. Qualifying individuals were assigned into two groups using simple random sampling. Group A (n = 48) received yogic eye exercises with three sets of 10 repetitions, 5 days a week for 4 weeks, and continued with their use of spectacles as advised by the ophthalmologist. Group B (n = 48) was a control group that did not receive any exercises and continued with their use of spectacles as advised by the ophthalmologist. Pretreatment and posttreatment refractive power was taken with automated refractor as an outcome measure. Results: In the study group, the pretreatment right eye refractive power was −1.48 which reduced to −1.45, while in the left eye, it reduced from 1.58 to 1.53. Individuals in Group A showed meager improvement, but it was not statistically significant. In the control group, the power of −1.12 in the right eye and −1.21 in the left eye remained the same. Conclusion: This study concludes that there was change in refractive power in the experimental group after intervention of yogic eye exercises. This suggests that there are clinical benefits of yoga in treating individuals with myopia.

Keywords: Automated refractor, myopia, yogic eye exercises


How to cite this article:
Desai R, Palekar T, Patel D, Rathi M, Joshi R, Shah A. Effects of yogic eye exercises for myopia among students. J Dent Res Rev 2020;7, Suppl S2:69-71

How to cite this URL:
Desai R, Palekar T, Patel D, Rathi M, Joshi R, Shah A. Effects of yogic eye exercises for myopia among students. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Jul 3];7, Suppl S2:69-71. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2020/7/5/69/278906

Editor: Dr. Pradnya Kakodkar





  Introduction Top


Eye is an exceptional organ for the sense of vision. The adult human eyeball is situated in the orbital cavity. It is a hollow spherical structure with a diameter of 24 mm anteroposteriorly and 23.5 mm transversly.[1] Vision occupies the prime place among the five sensations. It not only plays an important role in learning, but it also has a major role in day-to-day activities, such as walking, playing, and watching television. With the help of vision, we can witness the color, shape, size, and brightness of the object.[2] It collects light from the surrounding environment and controls its intensity, thus focusing it through the lenses to form an image. This image will then be transmitted to the brain through neural pathways. Diseases and disorders related to vision can also occur just like other parts of the human body.

The prevalence of myopia is rising to 80%–90% in East and Southeast Asia.[3] Increased prevalence of myopia has become a worldwide health problem. High myopia can lead to serious complications such as macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, retinal detachments, and blindness, which may end with the decline in the quality of life.

As the lens is very thick in myopia, the vision falls short of retina, leading to an inability to focus on distant objects, usually seen in young population. The ciliary muscles here are constantly contracting and in spasm. Therefore, they prohibit lens from adjusting to distant objects.[4]

Myopia can occur due to seeing digital or computer screen (digital eye strain syndrome) too long and in close distance.[5] This will cause eye strain and accelerate myopia progressivity. Therefore, it is necessary for people to get aware of exercises which may help them to practice and to avoid complications of the problem. As there is less literature on this topic, this study will help in awareness among people for yogic exercises.

Yoga has been proven worldwide for its many health benefits. There are many asanas or yogic poses that aim at improving the way different parts of the body function. Yoga increases blood circulation and nutrition to eyes, thus improving the health of the eyes.

Muliani (2017) concluded that practicing yoga eye exercises for 1 h twice daily for 8 weeks will reduce fatigue of extraocular muscles and improve visual acuity.[3] Nitin Gosewade et al. (2013) concluded that eye exercises showed improvement in visual reaction time.

Thus, the purpose of the study was to find out the effect of yogic eye exercises for myopia among young adults and to find whether there is reduction in eye power of individuals after sessions of yoga.


  Methodology Top


This study was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Pimpri, Pune. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee (DYPCPT/15/3-10-2018). Ninety-six individuals with age group of 18–25 years, diagnosed as myopia from the ophthalmology department, with the power − 1–−3, both genders were included in the study. Individuals with any eye pathological conditions, eye infections, conjunctivitis, optic neuropathy, and optic neuritis were excluded from the study. Patients with myopic condition were screened for their power of eyes using automated refractor. Ninety-six individuals meeting the inclusion criteria were recruited, and through lottery method, they were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control groups).

Group A

Experimental group included 48 individuals selected with myopia. Before starting with the exercises, they were checked for their power of eyes. This group performed following eye exercises with 10 repetitions, 3 sets, 5 days a week for 4 weeks[6] and continued with their use of spectacles as advised by the ophthalmologist.

Palming

Individuals were initially instructed to rub the palms of their hands till they experience warmth. They were then informed to place their palms gently over the eyelids with minimal pressure and feel the energy being transferred into eyes and experience the eye muscles relaxing. Palming relaxes and revitalizes the eye muscles, thus promoting circulation to aqueous humor.[7]

Up and down movement

Individuals were instructed to move continuously their eyeballs gently and smoothly in upward and downward directions for ten times.

Sideways movement

Individuals were instructed to gently move eyeballs continuously to right–left for 10 repetitions. This coordinates medial and lateral muscles of eyes.[7]

Nasikagra

Individuals were asked to gaze at the nose tip with 5 s hold for 10 repetitions.

Trataka

Individuals were asked to fix their gaze looking at the tip of index finger at the level of eyes without blinking until tears start running down the cheeks. Then close their eyes and keep gazing at the same point from behind eyelids for 10 s. This process was repeated for three times.[8]

Group B

Control group included 48 individuals, diagnosed as myopia, but were not given any type of exercises and continued with their use of spectacles as advised by the ophthalmologist. They were checked for their power of eyes.

At the end of 4 weeks, postrefractive power was taken for both the groups using automated refractor. The data were entered in the excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical measures, such as mean and standard deviation, were calculated. t-test was used for comparison at the level of significance of P < 0.05.


  Results Top


The study was conclusive of 96 eligible samples, diagnosed as myopia by the ophthalmology department, under two different groups with 48 samples in each group. There were 16 males and 80 females [Table 1]. [Table 2] indicates the pre- and post-intervention values of the refractive power of the right and left eyes in the study and control groups. t-test was applied in the study group and no statistically significant difference was seen. However, no comparison was done in the control group as the pre- and post-values were the same.
Table 1: Gender distribution

Click here to view
Table 2: Pre- and post-refractive power of experimental and control groups

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Myopia is a leading cause of loss of vision throughout the world, and its prevalence is increasing. However, a growing body of evidence shows that visual experiences early in life may affect ocular growth and eventual refractive status.

As seen in [Figure 1], patients were screened for Myopia using Automated Refractor, pre treatment and post treatment after 4 weeks.
Figure 1: Screening of eye power using automated refractor

Click here to view


As seen in [Figure 2], students performing Trataka.
Figure 2: Students performing yogic eye exercises

Click here to view


In this study, there was no change in control group, but there was meager change in the experimental group with individuals having low power. This result is supported by the study carried out by Adam Wylęgała 2016, which said that after exercises, anterior-chamber angle increases by up to 7.6° because of the changes in iris configuration. Highest changes are observed in myopic eyes; this ultimately changes retinal thickness and helps in forming clear image on the retina, therefore improving eyesight.[7]

Similarly, Lolage and Jadhav in 2013 conducted a study on high-school girls and showed that yogic exercises have favorable influence in improving eye strength in high-school girls.[9]

The above study is even supported by Rathod et al. in 2011 concluded that eye exercises are effective in improving near point of convergence and helped improving eyesight.[6]

The reason thought to be there behind the effect of eye exercises is that it strengthens accommodation, which is power of changing the focus of eyes for vision.[10] Although the result was assumed to be nil statistically during the present study, long-term effect may change the power of eyes. It may be due to the fact that in eye-focusing exercises, the lens converges, and it affects power of accommodation, and with proper practice of exercises, it improves the accommodation power. Hence, a longer duration is needed to see clinically favorable results.

The participants practiced these exercises for only 20 days which may be a short duration to show any significant changes. This is the lacunae of the study.


  Conclusion Top


The current study concludes that there was minimal change in refractive power in the experimental group after 4 weeks intervention of yogic eye exercises although not statistically significant. Further study needs to be carried out for a longer duration of time.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Jain AK. Textbook of Physiology. 7th ed., vol 2. Avichal Publishing company, Kala Amb; 2017. p. 1088.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Prakasam RL. Fundamentals of Medical Physiology. 2nd ed: PARAS Medical Publisher, Hydrabad; 2001. p.473.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Muliani. Literature review: Yoga eye exercise effect on visual acuity. Int J Sci Res 2017;6:493-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ray SD. Yogic Exercises. Physiologic and Psychic Processes. 1st ed., Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD. New Delhi, 1998. p.132-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Akinbinu TR, Mashalla YJ. Impact of computer technology on health: Computer vision syndrome. Acad J 2014;5:20-30.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Rathod VJ, Desai DP, Alagesan J. Effect of eye exercises on myopia-randomized controlled study. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2011;10:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Wylęgała A. The effects of physical exercises on ocular physiology: A review. J Glaucoma 2016;25:e843-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bhadra C, Chatterjee K. Effect of trataka on pulse rate of college level male students. Int J Yogic Hum Mov Sports Sci 2018;3:873-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lolage R, Jadhav N. Effect of yogic exercises for myopia for high school girls. Int Proc Econ Dev Res 2013;64:55-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Haargaard B, Jensen PK, Kessing SV, Nissen OI. Exercise and iris concavity in healthy eyes. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2001;79:277-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methodology
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed244    
    Printed7    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded36    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]