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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 88-91

Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive oil on the prevention of dental erosion: An In vitro study


Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

Date of Submission14-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance30-Dec-2019
Date of Web Publication12-Feb-2020

Correspondence Address:
Elhadi Mohieldin Awooda
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, 12810, Khartoum
Sudan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_50_19

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  Abstract 


Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the anti-erosive effect of olive oil against citric acid on bovine teeth and to compare the effectiveness with that of fluoride varnish. Materials and Methods: An observational analytical cross-sectional study among forty recently extracted bovine incisor teeth. From each tooth, a cubic of 4 mm × 4 mm was cut. Five surfaces of the cubic were coated by nail varnish leaving only the enamel window uncovered. The specimen was divided into four groups randomly: Group 1: five teeth (control group) nothing used, Group 2: five teeth immersed in olive oil for 6 h, Group 3: five teeth immersed in olive oil for 48 h, and Group 4: 10 teeth immersed in fluoride varnish 48 h. Then, each specimen was immersed in citric acid (pH: 2.3) for 15 and 30 min. The amount of calcium dissolved was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Different variables were statistically compared by t-test and ANOVA test with the level of significant set at P≤ 0.05. Results: The mean of calcium dissolution among the control group at 15 min was 2.8 mg/dl, while dissolution in 30 min was 6.1 mg/dl. When comparing the effect of exposure time duration of all specimens in citric acid, it was found that calcium dissolution increased in 30 min exposure than in 15 min exposure. Emersion of teeth in olive oil for 6 h was effective in reducing enamel erosion when exposed to citric acid 1% at 15 min, while in 30-min exposure to citric acid was less effective and to a lesser degree than fluoride varnish (sodium fluoride). Conclusion: Bovine teeth immersed in olive oil for 6 h resist the erosive effect of citric acid exposure for 15 min. Olive oil has less effect on the prevention of erosive tooth wear when compared to fluoride varnish.

Keywords: Erosive tooth wear, fluoride varnish, olive oil, spectrophotometry


How to cite this article:
Ayoub AO, Awooda EM. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive oil on the prevention of dental erosion: An In vitro study. J Dent Res Rev 2019;6:88-91

How to cite this URL:
Ayoub AO, Awooda EM. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive oil on the prevention of dental erosion: An In vitro study. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 14];6:88-91. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2019/6/4/88/278221




  Introduction Top


Dental erosion is defined as the loss of dental hard tissue through chemical etching and dissolution by acids of nonbacterial origin.[1],[2] The prevalence of dental erosion has been globally increasing in recent years,[3] leading to the impairment of esthetics and function, which affect the patient's quality of life.[4] Dental erosion frequency results from the exposure of acid to the tooth surface. The acids may be either intrinsic (gastric acids) which are regurgitated into the mouth or extrinsic acids which are commonly found in foods and drinks.[5] The critical pH values for enamel dissolution are <4.5 causing dissolution of hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite in the dental enamel.[6]

The successful management of extensive tooth wear can be challenging and expensive. When diagnosed early, a preventive method could be applied to reduce the rate of loss of tooth substances and to maintain the integrity, esthetic, and function of dental structure.[7]

Many studies assessed the effectiveness of topical fluoridation in reducing enamel demineralization and in increasing remineralization or microhardening of the enamel to resist acid-softened tooth surface.[8] The total prevention of enamel erosion by the use of topical fluorides with daily dosages is difficult.[9]

Natural oils are commonly used by traditional medicine and dental practitioners in prevention and management of many diseases. Vegetable oils have been studied in preventive dentistry because they come from a natural, edible, low-cost, and worldwide accessible source.[10] Olive oil's chemical composition depends on both geographical and botanical origin of olives.[11] The promising data from studies regarding olive oil in view of its favorable composition of bioactive compounds motivate researchers to synthesize evidence of its potential role in the prevention and management of many diseases.[12] Few studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of olive oil on the prevention of dental erosion,[13],[14],[15] without a conclusive result. It is justified in this study to evaluate its effectiveness as an alternative approach when changing the duration of immersion of teeth in it and the duration of immersion in citric acid (1%). The objectives of this study were to explore the anti-erosive effect of olive oil on bovine teeth when subjected to citric acid (1%) for 15 and 30 min and to compare the effectiveness when immersing a group of bovine teeth in olive oil for 48 h and another group for 6 h. Also to evaluate the antierosive effect of olive oil in comparison to the effect of fluoride varnish.


  Materials and Methods Top


An observational analytical cross-sectional study design conducted on Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), National Centre for Research (NCR), Sudan, during the period from March 2017 to May 2017. Ethical approval for conducting the study was obtained from the University of Medical Sciences and Technology Ethical Committee, as well as from the National Centre for Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Sudan.

Six bovine mandibular jaws were collected from a local butcher, from claves raised in similar conditions and of the same age. Forty sound anterior teeth were extracted successfully by mandibular anterior forceps. The teeth were then cleaned with running water and polished to remove any debris and remnant of the periodontal ligament. Then, they were stored in deionized water till the time of the experiment. A 4 x 4 mm area was cut using a fine separating porcelain cutting disc forming a cubic shape with six surfaces. The cubic specimens were coated by nail polishing acid-resistant leaving only enamel window uncovered. The specimens were stored in deionizing water until experiment time.

The specimens were divided into four groups randomly: Group 1: 5 specimens nothing used (control group), Group 2: 5 specimens immersed in olive oil for 48 h, Group 3: 5 specimens immersed in olive oil for 6 h, and Group 4: 10 specimens immersed in fluoride varnish for 48 h. Each block was placed in 5 ml plain tube and labeled if control or using fluoride or olive oil. Then after immersion, the specimens were cleaned and immersed in 1% citric acid (pH 2.3) for 15 min and then 30 min. The buffer solution was added to cocentered citric acid powder, and pH meter was used to calibrate 2.21 pH. For each tube containing specimen, a 3 ml of citric acid was added using a micropipette. Tubes for different groups were coded for identification.

The pH meter was used to calibrate 6.47 pH of pure olive oil (100%), the amount of acid was found to be 0.0429, and the total acidity was 0.00958.

An atomic absorption spectrophotometer (210 VGP, Buck Scientific, Inc. East Norwalk, CT) was used to measure the amount of calcium dissolved (mmol/L) in each sample at different times. Wear rates were quantified by comparing the final calcium concentration.

The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data. Multiple comparison between means of dissolved calcium in different groups was determined by one-way ANOVA. The level of statistical significance was set at P< 0.05.


  Results Top


Among control group specimen that immersed in citric acid 1%; the mean calcium dissolution at 15 min was 2.8 ± 0.58 mg/dl, while at 30 min it was 6.1 ± 0.98 mg/dl. When comparing the effect of exposure time duration of all specimens to citric acid, it was found that calcium dissolution increased in 30 min exposure than 15 min exposure [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Means of calcium dissolution in different times' exposure to citric acid 1%

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The calcium dissolution of the teeth when immersed in 100% olive oil for 6 h and exposed to 1% citric acid at pH 2.3 for 15 min was 4.31 ± 1.27 mg/dl, while the calcium dissolution teeth coated with fluoride varnish was 2.22 ± 0.92 mg/dl. However, when teeth immersed in olive oil for 6 h and exposed to citric acid for 30 min, the dissolution was 6.5 ± 0.23 mg/dl, while immersion in fluoride varnish for 30 min showed calcium dissolution of 4 ± 1.4 mg/dl. The immersion of teeth in 100% olive oil for 48 h and then exposed to citric acid was less effective in both times (15 and 30 min), this demonstrated that fluoride had a greater effect in resisting demineralization than olive oil and control groups in 15 and 30 min exposed to citric acid as presented in [Table 1].
Table 1: The means of calcium dissolution in the different groups as compared to the control group

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[Table 2] shows the result of multiple comparison by ANOVA test with statistically significant difference (P = 0.004) when comparing means of calcium ions dissolved between groups and within groups. Comparing calcium dissolution between the groups; when immersed in citric acid for 30 min, revealed statistical significant difference (P = 0.001).
Table 2: Multiple comparison between dependent variables (duration of specimens in citric acid) and sample groups of control, immersed in olive oil and in fluoride varnish

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  Discussion Top


This study aimed to find a simple approach to prevent dental erosion, as its prevalence is increasing globally.[3],[16] The acid is a common cause of enamel decalcification, and erosion alone is not a big issue, but the consequence (sensitivity, dental caries, pain, change in occlusion, and poor esthetic) is constituted a big problem.

The challenges in controlling the causes of dental erosion make its prevention difficult and expensive. Many studies were carried out using medicinal plants to decrease the risk of dental erosion consequences. They have effects similar to or even better than conventional clinical treatment, such as fluoride varnish.[13],[14],[15] One of these materials is olive oil.

This study was In vitro in bovine teeth, when consideration in vivo; saliva buffering action, concentration and frequency of acid exposure to natural teeth, may represent factors that can play a role in the outcome of anti-erosive effect of olive oil. The erosive wear is complex and depends on the interaction of biological, chemical, and behavioral factors.[16] Salivary flow and overnight exposure to acid are important factors for erosive tooth wear.[17] In this study, the immersion of teeth in pure olive oil at different times was tested for the effect on enamel acid resistance. The citric acid (1%) of a pH 2.3 was used to test the erosive challenge which is the most common acidic source that humans are subjected to. The design of this study was in vitro in bovine teeth, which makes it difficult to simulate the human oral environments, thus drawing a conclusion from this study is impractical. An ex vivo study on the extracted human teeth is more justified, as the structure of this teeth and concentration of different minerals and saliva role may differ greatly from the bovines one. This could be considered as a baseline data, and future in vivo experiments are recommended.

Mechanism of action against erosive tooth wear according to emulsion duration, composition, types of olive oil, and its concentration is not clearly understood. It is assumed that the adhesion properties of olive oil might be increased when applied as emulsion leading to a protective coating of the enamel surface; it might act as a diffusion barrier during acid exposure.[18] Other factors such as tooth structure (enamel or dentin) and demineralization process may affect the process of erosion. Also salivary flow rate, its buffering capacity and pellicle formed by salivary mucins played a role in resistance of acid dissolution.[19] The 6-h immersion period was selected owing to the possibility of home use by using a nightguard as in home bleaching,[20] while the 48 h was taken from a previous research which used sodium fluoride.[21]

In consistent with the result obtained by Buchalla et al.,2003 fluoride has better anti-erosive effect when compared to olive oil.[14] In spite of that, there is a significant effect on immersion of 100% olive oil for 6 h after exposure to a citric acid, while immersion for 48 h was not effective. This result concluded that there is no need for immersion of olive oil for 48 h. The mechanism of prevention of acid dissolution by olive oil at 6 h is unclear yet, but it may be due to a short time (6 h) of immersion of olive oil which may simulate the real oral environment, while in case of 48 h, other factors might be contributed.

The result by Vivek et al., in 2018, revealed that 2% olive oil mouth rinse showed the least protection against erosion on the enamel.[15] Their findings contradict our results and Wiegand et al. results who reported that 100% pure olive oil is not effective against erosion, but 2% application of olive oil with fluoridated mouth rinse was effective against erosion, but to a lesser degree than the fluoride varnish.[13]


  Conclusion Top


Immersion of bovine teeth in olive oil for 6 h and then exposure to citric acid for 15 min offer protection against dental erosion, more than when teeth immersed in olive oil for 48 h, but lesser than when treated with fluoride varnish for 48 h in different times' exposure to citric acid.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Kato MT, Lancia M, Sales-Peres SH, Buzalaf MA. Preventive effect of commercial desensitizing toothpastes on bovine enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res 2010;44:85-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Murakami C, Bönecker M, Corrêa MS, Mendes FM, Rodrigues CR. Effect of fluoride varnish and gel on dental erosion in primary and permanent teeth. Arch Oral Biol 2009;54:997-1001.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Salas MM, Nascimento GG, Huysmans MC, Demarco FF. Estimated prevalence of erosive tooth wear in permanent teeth of children and adolescents: An epidemiological systematic review and meta-regression analysis. J Dent 2015;43:42-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Papagianni CE, van der Meulen MJ, Naeije M, Lobbezoo F. Oral health-related quality of life in patients with tooth wear. J Oral Rehabil 2013;40:185-90.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Larsen MJ, Richards A. Fluoride is unable to reduce dental erosion from soft drinks. Caries Res 2002;36:75-80.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
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8.
Wiegand A, Attin T. Influence of fluoride on the prevention of erosive lesions – A review. Oral Health Prev Dent 2003;1:245-53.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Lagerweij MD, Buchalla W, Kohnke S, Becker K, Lennon AM, Attin T. Prevention of erosion and abrasion by a high fluoride concentration gel applied at high frequencies. Caries Res 2006;40:148-53.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Ionta FQ, Alencar CR, Val PP, Boteon AP, Jordão MC, Honório HM, et al. Effect of vegetable oils applied over acquired enamel pellicle on initial erosion. J Appl Oral Sci 2017;25:420-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Alves E, Domingues MR, Domingues P. Polar lipids from olives and olive oil: A review on their identification, significance and potential biotechnological applications. Foods 2018;7. pii: E109.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Schwingshackl L, Lampousi AM, Portillo MP, Romaguera D, Hoffmann G, Boeing H. Olive oil in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and intervention trials. Nutr Diabetes 2017;7:e262.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Wiegand A, Gutsche M, Attin T. Effect of olive oil and an olive-oil-containing fluoridated mouthrinse on enamel and dentin erosion in vitro. Acta Odontol Scand 2007;65:357-61.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Buchalla W, Attin T, Roth P, Hellwig E. Influence of olive oil emulsions on dentin demineralization in vitro. Caries Res 2003;37:100-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Vivek HP, Prashant GM, Geetha S, Chandramohan S, Imranulla M, Srinidhi PB. Effect of mouthrinses containing olive oil, fluoride, and their combination on enamel erosion: An in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2018;19:130-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Serra MC, Messias DC, Turssi CP. Control of erosive tooth wear: Possibilities and rationale. Braz Oral Res 2009;23 Suppl 1:49-55.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Hara AT, Lussi A, Zero DT. Biological factors. Monogr Oral Sci 2006;20:88-99.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Slomiany BL, Murty VL, Mandel ID, Sengupta S, Slomiany A. Effect of lipids on the lactic acid retardation capacity of tooth enamel and cementum pellicles formed in vitro from saliva of caries-resistant and caries-susceptible human adults. Arch Oral Biol 1990;35:175-80.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Imfeld T. Dental erosion. Definition, classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:151-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Reinhardt JW, Eivins SE, Swift EJ Jr., Denehy GE. A clinical study of nightguard vital bleaching. Quintessence Int 1993;24:379-84.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Sorvari R, Meurman JH, Alakuijala P, Frank RM. Effect of fluoride varnish and solution on enamel erosion in vitro. Caries Res 1994;28:227-32.  Back to cited text no. 21
    


    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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