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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 49-51

Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population


Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission23-Jan-2019
Date of Acceptance09-Apr-2019
Date of Web Publication8-Nov-2019

Correspondence Address:
Shail Kumari
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Rishiraj College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Bhopal - 462 037, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_3_19

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  Abstract 


Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior cranial base (S-N) length in Class I and Class II division 1 individuals of Central India in two different age groups. Materials and Methods: Sample size comprised 120 individuals belonged to Central India. Individuals were divided into two groups: Group I comprised 60 young children (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 10–14 years (n = 30 Class I and n = 30 Class II division 1) and Group II comprised 60 young adults (30 males and 30 females) in the age group of 18–22 years (n = 30 Class I and n = 30 Class II division 1). S-N length was measured from the traced sheets of lateral cephalograph of the study participants. The gender difference and differences in the group were calculated using the paired t-test. Results: No significant difference was found for S-N length in Class I and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was longer in young adults compared to young children in both Class I and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was found to be more in males compared to females in both Class I individuals and Class II division 1 individuals. S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian population (65.25 mm) compared to Caucasian population (71 mm). Conclusion: The present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age. S-N length was more in young adults than in young children and lesser in females compared to males. S-N length was found to be shorter in the Central Indian population compared to Caucasian population, so S-N length should be considered as population specific and not the same for all population.

Keywords: Anterior cranial base length, cephalometric, malocclusion, retrognathic, sexual dimorphism, S-N length


How to cite this article:
Kumari S, Bapat SM. Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population. J Dent Res Rev 2019;6:49-51

How to cite this URL:
Kumari S, Bapat SM. Assessment of anterior cranial base length in two different age groups of Central Indian population. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 21];6:49-51. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2019/6/2/49/270647




  Introduction Top


In facial growth and development, most of the anatomic changes take place at the base of the cranium. It is very important to understand the complexities related to the development, architecture, and function of the cranial base, so the craniofacial variation can be well understood.[1] In 1916, the cranial base was found to be related with prognathism of the jaws and since then the cranial base is of much interest to orthodontists.[2] Cranial base angle has a tendency to reduce with age, and many researchers had done a study to find the age when the cranial base becomes stabilized in an individual.[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]

Cranial base might influence the maxillary and mandibular growth in different ways, and the maxilla is closely related and affected by the anterior cranial base.[8] There is evidence in the past that the cranial base differs among populations.[9],[10] Various authors had proved that cranial base morphology has an influence on the position of maxilla and mandible, thus helping in determining the skeletal pattern of an individual.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anterior cranial base (S-N) length of Class I and Class II division 1 from Central India in two age groups: one group comprised children from 10 to 14 years of age (young children) and another group comprised adults from 18 to 22 years of age (young adults).


  Materials and Methods Top


The study comprised 120 individuals belonged to Central India, who were divided into two main groups according to age. Group I comprised 60 young children (10–14 years) with 30 individuals (15 males and 15 females) each of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions. Group II comprised 60 young adults (18–22 years) with 30 individuals (15 males and 15 females) each of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions. The study was approved by the institutional ethical committee.

The age group ranged from 10 to 14 years and from 18 to 22 years were only included in the study. Individuals with no previous history of orthodontic treatment were only included in the study. Individuals with missing teeth, long-span/short-span crown and bridge, and large proximal caries were excluded from the study.

Same X-ray machine with the subject in the natural head position, with teeth in maximum intercuspation and lips in relax position to take lateral cephalograms. All radiographs were taken following proper precautionary measures. The radiographs were exposed at 85 kV/10 mA for 17.6 s (as recommended by the manufacturer). The film-to-source distance was 5 ft 2”. Magnification of all cephalograms was uniformly 1:1 to eliminate error of measurement by magnification. Cephalometric tracing was carried out on 0.003-inch matt lead acetate paper using soft black HB pencil by a single observer to eliminate the interobserver error. S-N length was measured from the data collected to assess the anterior cranial base length for Central Indian population.

The data collected were tabulated for each subgroup, and the mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated. The differences between gender and groups were calculated using paired t-test.


  Results Top


The measurements of S-N length for comparison of males and females and young children and young adults of Class I and Class II division 1 malocclusions are enumerated in [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]. S-N length was longer in Class I young adults (66.86 mm) compared to young children (63.63). In Class II division 1 individuals also, S-N length was longer in young adults (65.5 mm) compared to young children (62.8 mm). S-N length was found to be more in young adult males (70.2 mm) compared to young adult females (63.53 mm) in Class I individuals. Similar results were found in Class II division 1 individuals with S-N length more in young male children (64.53 mm) compared to young female children (61.06 mm). S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian population (65.25 mm) when compared to Caucasian population (71 mm).
Table 1: Mean values of S-N length measurement for Class I individuals and comparison of males, females, young children, and young adults

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Table 2: Mean values of S-N length measurement for Class II Division 1 individuals and comparison of males, females, young children, and young adults

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Table 3: Mean value comparison of S-N length measurement for Class I and Class II Division 1 individuals

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Table 4: Mean value comparison of S-N length measurement with original Bjork's analysis

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  Discussion Top


The anterior cranial base is the length between sella turcica and nasion (S-N) and used for the analysis of the direction of craniofacial growth and dimension.[11] The present study assessed the length of the anterior cranial base (S-N) in Central Indian individuals in standard lateral cephalogram. S-N length is considered to be an important growth indicator for the head. S-N length was significantly shorter in the Central Indian individuals compared to Caucasian populations. The mean S-N length in the Caucasian population is reported to be 71 mm.[1] In Central Indian individuals, it was 63.63 mm for young children and 66.86 mm for young adults. It was lesser in females compared to males, and this is probably due to linear measurements that are usually larger in males compared to females. A similar result was obtained by Yassir[12] in his study. Budiardjo et al.[13] and Malta et al.[14] found no significant difference in S-N length among males and females.

Variations in the length of S-N line can affect the spatial positioning of the maxilla and mandible and hence mandible in the anteroposterior plane. In the present study, no significant difference was seen between Class I and Class II division 1, which is contradictory to the study done by Kamak et al.,[15] where they found that S-N length was significantly more in Class II compared to Class I. The growth of the skull is considered to be complete by 7–10 years of age, but the present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age.[1]

Limitations of the present study were that cephalograms were used and manual tracings were done. Further research is required using cone-beam computed tomography and digital cephalometric to give further findings if any to give an exact conclusion.


  Conclusion Top


The present study showed that S-N length is not a stable parameter and growth of skull occurs even after 10 years of age. S-N length was more in young adults than that in young children and lesser in females compared to males. S-N length was found to be shorter in the Central Indian individuals compared to Caucasian populations, so S-N length should be considered as population specific and not the same for all population.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest



 
  References Top

1.
Graber TM, Vanarsdall RL, Vig KW. Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques. 4th ed. St. Louis:Elsevier Inc.; 2005. p. 117.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Young M. A contribution to the study of Scottish skull. Trans R Soc Edinb 1916;51:347-453.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Scott JH. The cranial base. Am J Phys Anthropol 1958;16:319-48.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Moss M, Greenberg SN. Post natal growth of the human skull base. Angle Orthod 1955;25:77-84.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Ohtsukhi F, Mukherjee D, Lewis AB, Roche AF. Growth of the cranial base and vault dimensions in children. J Anthropol Soc Nippon 1982;90:239-58.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Stramrud L. The pattern of craniofacial associations. Acta Odontol Scand 1959;24 Suppl 46:1-174.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Melson B. The cranial base. The postnatal development of the cranial base studied histologically on human autopsy material. Acta Odontol Scand 1974;32 Suppl 62:1-126.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kasai K, Moro T, Kanazawa E, Iwasawa T. Relationship between cranial base and maxillofacial morphology. Eur J Orthod 1995;17:403-10.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Yamaki R. A morphological study of the craniofacial structure of Japanese and White American with Class II division 1 malocclusion. With particular reference to maxillary region and cranial base. Nihon Univ Dent J 1987;61:81-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kasai K, Richards LC, Brown T. Comparative study of craniofacial morphology in Japanese and Australian aboriginal populations. Hum Biol 1993;65:821-34.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Huh YJ, Huh KH, Kim HK, Nam SE, Song HY, Lee JH, et al. Constancy of the angle between the Frankfort horizontal plane and the sella-nasion line: A nine-year longitudinal study. Angle Orthod 2014;84:286-91.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Yassir YA. The relation of anterior and lateral cranial base lengths with mandibular morphology and facial heights. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2008;20:88-92.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Budiardjo SB, Karim AF, Indriati IS, Wahono NA, Suharsini M, Fauziah E, et al. Length of anterior cranial base and Frankfort horizontal plane: A lateral cephalometric study in 11-16-year-old children. IOP Conf. Series. J Physics 2018;1073:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Malta LA, Ortolani CF, Faltin K. Quantification of cranial base growth during pubertal growth. J Orthod 2009;36:229-35.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kamak H, Çatalbas B, Senel B. Cranial base features between sagittal skeletal malocclusions in Anatolian Turkish adults: Is there a difference? J Orthod Res 2013;1:52-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
  [Full text]  



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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