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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 19-22

Social trait rating of halitosis sufferers: A Crosssectional study


Department of Periodontics, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

Date of Web Publication23-Apr-2019

Correspondence Address:
Clement C Azodo
Department of Periodontics, University of Benin, Benin City
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jdrr.jdrr_5_19

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  Abstract 


Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the social trait rating of halitosis sufferers by others who are Nigerian undergraduates. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted among main (Ugbowo) campus residential undergraduates of University of Benin, Nigeria. The questionnaire that assessed health status, quality of life, intelligence, caring, trustworthiness, attractiveness, sexiness, aggressiveness, happiness, pleasantry, motivation, spirituality, satisfaction with life, and social life activity of halitosis sufferers was the data collection tool. Results: A total of 245 individuals aged between 17 and 35 years comprising 100 males and 145 females were studied. The worst affected traits were attractiveness and sexiness followed by pleasantry, motivation, satisfaction with life, social life activity, and happiness. The least affected traits were intelligent and trustworthiness. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the low rating of halitosis sufferers on pleasantry, motivation, satisfaction with life, and happiness made them less attractive and sexy and cumulated in diminished social life.

Keywords: Halitosis, relationship, social rating


How to cite this article:
Azodo CC. Social trait rating of halitosis sufferers: A Crosssectional study. J Dent Res Rev 2019;6:19-22

How to cite this URL:
Azodo CC. Social trait rating of halitosis sufferers: A Crosssectional study. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 May 22];6:19-22. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2019/6/1/19/256805




  Introduction Top


Halitosis is seen as one of the most unattractive issues during social interaction, with the potential to cause considerable personal discomfort and social embarrassment.[1] It can put a severe strain on the social, personal, or intimate relationship and may ultimately end it. Other adverse effects of halitosis on social communication and life include but not limited to avoidance tendencies, frustration, loss of self-esteem, anger, and depression.[2]

Anecdotal evidence seemingly points halitosis to having adverse effects on career and life successes. Halitosis sufferers were perceived to be having difficulty in getting good jobs; the married ones among experiencing marital disharmony, whereas singles among them have difficulty getting life partners from Azodo and Umoh[3] study among the young people. The basis of these perceptions does not appear to be well understood because the perception of halitosis that dominated the literature was from the perspective of halitosis sufferers regarding behavioral tendencies and reactions. No study was found that exclusively focused on how a person with halitosis was viewed socially by others. Consequently, this significant gap in the literature on the social trait rating of halitosis sufferers formed the basis of this study. The objective of this study was to determine the social trait rating of halitosis sufferers by others who are Nigerian undergraduates.


  Materials and Methods Top


This prospective study that focused exclusively on how halitosis sufferers are viewed by others who might be potential friends, employers and peers were carried out among main (Ugbowo) campus residential undergraduates of University of Benin, Nigeria. A total of 245 students were recruited which exceeded the calculated minimum sample size of 218 on the application of Cochran's formula for epidemiological studies.[4]

n = z2 P (1 − P)/d2

Where n = sample size, z = z statistics for a level of confidence (set at 1.96 corresponding to 95.0% confidence level), P = prevalence = 17.1% (0.171),[5] q = 1 − P and d = degree of desired accuracy = 5% (0.05).

The tool of data collection was a 22-item self-administered questionnaire. This self-developed validated questionnaire was anonymous in nature without any identifiers. The questionnaire has two sections. The first section which assessed the demographic characteristics of the participants. The second section which assessed the social desirability trait (health status, quality of life, intelligence, caring, trustworthiness, attractiveness, sexiness, aggressiveness, happiness, pleasantry, motivation, spirituality, satisfaction with life, and social life activity). The rating of the social desirability trait of the halitosis sufferers was done using a 7-point rating scale. On the scale, one connoted the lowest or most negative rating while seven was the highest or the most positive rating [Table 1]. The 7-point scale was selected based on the following; capacity to measure direction and neutrality, allow more information to be communicated, and ultimately ensures the greater reliability of measurement.
Table 1: Social rating of mouth odor instrument

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Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics and Research Committee of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria. Study participation was voluntary, and no incentive was offered. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants as approved by the Ethics and Research Committee. The data were subjected to independent t-test using (IBM SPSS version 20.0 Armonk, NY: IBM Corp), and the results presented as the mean and standard error of the mean in tabular form. Statistically significant set at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


A total of 245 undergraduates comprising males 100 (40.8%) and females 145 (59.2%) were studied. The majority of the participants were 17–20 years old. About one-third (34.3%) of the participants were in the third-academic year in the university, and about two-thirds of the participants interact actively with >26 people in a week [Table 2]. The traits worst affected were attractiveness (2.24 ± 0.09) and sexiness (2.24 ± 0.09) followed by pleasantry (2.61 ± 0.09), motivation (2.96 ± 0.09), satisfaction with life (3.00 ± 0.09), social life activity (3.32 ± 1.00), and happiness (3.33 ± 0.22). The least affected traits were intelligence and trustworthiness (4.23 ± 0.09) [Table 3].
Table 2: Demographic characteristics among the participants

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Table 3: Social trait rating among the participants

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  Discussion Top


Attractiveness is a quality that arouses interest and pleasure at first impression, but the development and sustenance of relationship are dependent on more personal characteristics. Halitosis which is unpleasant odor emitted from the mouth may wilt the first impression both professional and personally. Even charming individuals, who people are fond of, may suffer social isolation when they develop halitosis. The consideration of halitosis sufferers as less attractive and sexy in this study lent credence to the fact to the substantiated adverse effects of halitosis in the development of a relationships in social and professional circles. The inability to establish these relationships are necessary ingredients for failure in social and professional endeavors. The implications of halitosis as an enemy of romance, a marital disharmony potentiator and a destroyer of ones love life, dooms bridesmaids to spinsterhood; makes men who seemingly had everything to be social pariahs; and ostracizes mothers from their own children. The low rating of pleasantry being the third least ranked social trait may have had a consequent role in the low rating of attractiveness and sexiness nature of the halitosis sufferers. Hence, confirming the conflicting effects of halitosis on attractive, pleasing, and seductive wishes of individuals.

Self-depreciation feelings; lowered self-esteem, withdrawal in affective; social and professional circles; constant intrusive thoughts of having strong bad breath; interpreting normal gestures and attitudes of others as if they were expressions of disgust related to their bad breath; and behavioral reactions such as talking less or avoiding to talk with individuals who are physically close[6],[7] expressively explained the perception of halitosis sufferers as having diminished satisfaction with life and lowered social life activity. The low rating of social life activeness of halitosis sufferers showcases halitosis, as a potential social impediment that repels anyone approaching the sufferer. It has been stated that the detrimental effect of halitosis on one's self-image and confidence facilitates the development of social, emotional, and psychological anxiety.[2]

Excellent relationships at home, school, and work results in happier, more successful, and productive result-oriented people. These relationships are really hampered by the presence of halitosis, thereby resulting in less happy individuals as concurred to by the low rating of happiness in halitosis sufferers by the participants.

Halitosis being as a biomarker for various systemic diseases[8] may result in optimal outcome with prompt care if the affected person is informed early and properly. The considerable rating of overall health of the sufferers may not be unconnected with the perception of halitosis as a manifestation of suboptimal personal hygiene, especially by the media and advertisers of oral health-care products. The enormous negative impact of halitosis on social, emotional, and psychological aspects of life which are constituents of quality of life substantially explains why the quality of life rating of the sufferers was considerably low.

The high rating of the caring, intelligence and trustworthiness traits for halitosis sufferers may give them the opportunity for interactions. This is positive as the interactions will help in informing the halitosis sufferers of the condition which will prompt optimal healthcare seeking behavior. The need to sustain and improve these perceptions may be followed by tackling halitosis.


  Conclusion Top


It can be concluded that low rating of halitosis sufferers on pleasantry, motivation, satisfaction with life, and happiness made them less attractive and sexy and cumulated in diminished social life.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Winkel EG, Halitosis control. In: Lindhe J, Lang NP, Karring T, editors. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentstry. 5th ed., Vol. 2. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard; 2008. p. 132540.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Azodo CC, Osazuwa-Peter N, Omili M. Psychological and social impacts of halitosis: A review. J Soc Psychol Sci 2010;3:74-91.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Azodo CC, Umoh AO. Relational impact of halitosis: A study of young adult Nigerians. Savannah J Med Res Pract 2017;6:11-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cochran WG. Sampling Techniques. 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 1977.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Azodo CC, Umoh AO. Self-perceived oral malodour among periodontal patients: Prevalence and associated factors. Int J Med Biomed Res 2013;2:125-32.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Conceicao MD, Giudice FS, Carvalho LF. The halitosis consequences inventory: Psychometric properties and relationship with social anxiety disorder. BDJ Open 2018;4:18002.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Veeresha KL, Bansal M, Bansal V. Halitosis: A frequently ignored social condition. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2011;1:9-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Shifman A, Orenbuch S, Rosenberg M. Bad breath – A major disability according to the Talmud. Isr Med Assoc J 2002;4:843-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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