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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 85-87

Knowledge of Saudi parents toward the emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth: A cross-sectional survey


1 College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Date of Web Publication28-Nov-2016

Correspondence Address:
Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle
Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.194831

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Traumatic dentoalveolar injuries are frequent in children, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Parents are among the first people to deal with tooth avulsion among children at home or at play. This study, therefore, aimed to examine parental knowledge and attitudes about avulsed permanent teeth and their emergency treatment in children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 274 parents of children receiving care at KKU College of Dentistry, Abha. Informed consent was obtained after explaining the nature of the study and data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered in MS Excel Sheet, and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: Sixty-one percent of the parents reported dental trauma at home or school. 67.2% were not aware of the steps to be taken in tooth avulsion. The percentage for the source of information for avulsed tooth was a dentist (38.8%) and the internet (34.5%). 73.8% were unaware of the fact that permanent avulsed tooth can be replanted. 56.3% parents said that they would discard the knocked out tooth. Regarding knowledge about traumatic dental injuries 43.9% said it is imperative to know about it. Conclusion: This survey reflected the lack of awareness and adequate knowledge regarding the avulsed tooth. There is an imperative need for educating the parents regarding management of avulsed tooth permanent tooth.

Keywords: Avulsed tooth, emergency management, parent′s attitude, survey


How to cite this article:
AlGhamdi NS, Alothman SA, Assiri AM, Bijle MN, Togoo RA. Knowledge of Saudi parents toward the emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth: A cross-sectional survey. J Dent Res Rev 2016;3:85-7

How to cite this URL:
AlGhamdi NS, Alothman SA, Assiri AM, Bijle MN, Togoo RA. Knowledge of Saudi parents toward the emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth: A cross-sectional survey. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Sep 17];3:85-7. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2016/3/3/85/194831


  Introduction Top


Facial and dental trauma accounts for a significant oral health-related problem faced by children and young adolescents. Such injuries may lead to horrific injuries and permanent disability and are of a scale to become a significant global health issue. Injuries in the orofacial region range from minor enamel fracture to more complex fractures of jaws and avulsion of teeth. [1],[2] An estimate of 0.5%-16% of avulsions are seen in permanent dentition and 7%-13% in primary dentition. [3],[4],[5]

Maxillary central incisors are most commonly affected with avulsion, both in primary and permanent dentition. These injuries are more common among boys when compared to girls as boys participate more in outdoor activities and sports. [6],[7],[8],[9],[10] Fracture/avulsions leading to disfigurement or loss of esthetics can result in psychological disturbances in children. Timely and emergency intervention during injuries of facial and dental origin can give a good prognosis and help restore the smile of the child.

International Association of Dental Traumatology in 2012, published guidelines for management of avulsed teeth, highlights the evidence-based approach to emergency care and is of great help for a dentist, health-care professionals, and parent in decision-making. [1] In case of an emergency of avulsed teeth, parents of the children are the first people to attend and make decisions. Awareness and knowledge of the parents in the handling of these emergency situations of avulsed teeth influence the prognosis of the teeth.

Parents can play a major role in improving the prognosis of avulsed permanent teeth of children if they are informed about the first aid steps to be taken at the time of an accident. Before planning information campaigns, it is important to assess the knowledge level of parents. This study, therefore, aimed to examine parental knowledge and attitudes about avulsed permanent teeth and their emergency treatment in children.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out. A total of 274 parents of children receiving care at King Khalid University, College of Dentistry, Abha, Saudi Arabia, were included as study participants. The sample size was calculated based on the previous studies. A convenience sampling technique was used. A pilot study was carried out to check the feasibility of the study. The pretested, validated, and closed-ended questionnaire with ten items was used to assess the knowledge of parents regarding avulsion of teeth.

Ethical consent was obtained from the Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained after explaining the nature of the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were entered in MS Excel Sheet, and descriptive statistics were carried out with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) v. 20 (IBM Statistics Co., Chicago, USA).


  Results Top


The data were collected from the parents attending college for the treatment of their child. A total of 274 responses were collected and analyzed. The responses for the parents are shown in [Table 1]. Parents when asked, did your child experience trauma at home or school; 61% (167) said, yes, they did experience. 67.2% were not aware of the steps to be taken in tooth avulsion. The percentage for the source of information for avulsed tooth was a dentist (38.8%) and the internet (34.5%). 73.8% were unaware of the fact that permanent avulsed tooth can be replanted. 41.3% did not know what to do if the tooth is loose in the socket and displaced. 56.3% of parents said they would discard the knocked out tooth. 47.7% said tooth could be washed under tap water before replanting the avulsed tooth when dirty. 37.8% of the parents did not know what is the right time to see a dental professional in case of avulsed tooth. Parents when asked how to carry the tooth to the dentist in the event of replanting, 36.7% did not know, and 31.4% said dry cloth. Regarding knowledge about traumatic dental injuries, 43.9% said it is imperative to know about it.
Table 1: Responses of parents in case of avulsed tooth

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  Discussion Top


Avulsion is one of the most common types of dental trauma that is seen; the prognosis of the avulsed tooth depends on how the tooth is treated within the first few minutes and steps taken to preserve and replant the tooth.1 Parents or guardians of the child are the first ones to report such cases to dental professionals, so awareness and knowledge regarding the handling of avulsed tooth are important. 61% of parents participated in the study had some incidents of dental trauma. The study by Unal et al. [11] showed that in 65% of cases of tooth avulsion, the time from the injury to the arrival at a dental office exceeded 60 min; in the present study, 33.9% of parents said, should take the child with avulsed tooth to dentist in the first 30 min; 13.1% said should take the child to dentist after avulsion within first 30-60 min.

The parents when asked for replantation of the permanent tooth, 73.8% were unaware that the tooth could be replanted in the present study. Similar results were seen in the study conducted by Murali et al. and Hegde et al., where only a few parents were aware of a possibility of replantation. [12],[13] In our study, majority of the parents did not know what to do when the tooth is displaced and loose in the socket but not avulsed. Parental anxiety and stress of dentists can be reduced if they are aware of the emergency management of avulsed tooth as stated by in a study. [14]

Handling of the avulsed tooth and carrying the same in proper medium maintaining its vitality dictate the prognosis of the tooth. Majority of parents in the present study chose washing the avulsed tooth under tap water, in contrast to the results obtained by other studies, where they preferred to scrub the tooth and clean it. [14],[15],[16],[17] The majority of parents participating in the study felt the need of knowledge and awareness regarding dental trauma and emergency care of avulsed tooth; similar study results were found in other studies emphasizing to create awareness in such situations. [18]

The present study was conducted with a limited sample size in parents attending the institution. There are no socioeconomic factors taken into account. The study has not involved the diverse population; we highly recommend a study with more diverse population and larger sample size.


  Conclusion Top


The study highlights the lack of awareness among the parent in case of dental trauma or avulsed tooth situation. The study shows the willingness of the parents to learn more about dental injuries and emergency care during the situation. The awareness program will help parents in the handling of the tooth and referral to the dentist at the right time, for longer and sustained prognosis of the tooth. School teacher, guardians, and parents can be adequately trained for the same. The curriculum in the school can update the handling of such emergency situation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Andersson L, Andreasen JO, Day P, Heithersay G, Trope M, Diangelis AJ, et al. International Association of Dental Traumatology guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries: 2. Avulsion of permanent teeth. Dent Traumatol 2012;28:88-96.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
WHO|Child Injuries; 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/child/injury/en/. [Last cited on 2016 Jun 14].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Andreasen JO. Etiology and pathogenesis of traumatic dental injuries. A clinical study of 1,298 cases. Scand J Dent Res 1970;78:329-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gelbier S. Injured anterior teeth in children. A preliminary discussion. Br Dent J 1967;123:331-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hedegård B, Stålhane I. A study of traumatized permanent teeth in children 7-15 years. I. Sven Tandlak Tidskr 1973;66:431-52.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ravn JJ. Dental injuries in Copenhagen schoolchildren, school years 1967-1972. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1974;2:231-45.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Andreasen JO. Traumatic Injuries of the Teeth. St. Louis: The CV Mosby Co.; 1972. [6].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Andreasen JO, Borum MK, Jacobsen HL, Andreasen FM. Replantation of 400 avulsed permanent incisors 1. Diagnosis of healing complications. Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11:51-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Andreasen JO, Borum MK, Jacobsen HL, Andreasen FM. Replantation of 400 avulsed permanent incisors 2. Factors related to pulpal healing. Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11:59-68.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Andreasen JO, Borum MK, Andreasen FM. Replantation of 400 avulsed permanent incisors 3. Factors related to root growth. Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11:69-75.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Unal M, Oznurhan F, Kapdan A, Aksoy S, Dürer A. Traumatic dental injuries in children. Experience of a hospital in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2014;15:17-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Murali K, Krishnan R, Kumar VS, Shanmugam S, Rajasundharam P. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of mothers towards emergency management of dental trauma in Salem district, Tamil Nadu: A questionnaire study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32:202-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.
Hegde AM, Kumar KN, Varghese E. Knowledge of dental trauma among mothers in Mangalore. Dent Traumatol 2010;26:417-21.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Robertson A, Norén JG. Knowledge-based system for structured examination, diagnosis and therapy in treatment of traumatised teeth. Dent Traumatol 2001;17:5-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Raphael SL, Gregory PJ. Parental awareness of the emergency management of avulsed teeth in children. Aust Dent J 1990;35:130-3.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Namdev R, Jindal A, Bhargava S, Bakshi L, Verma R, Beniwal D. Awareness of emergency management of dental trauma. Contemp Clin Dent 2014;5:507-13.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
17.
Shashikiran ND, Reddy VV, Nagaveni NB. Knowledge and attitude of 2,000 parents (urban and rural-1,000 each) with regard to avulsed permanent incisors and their emergency management, in and around Davangere. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2006;24:116-21.  Back to cited text no. 17
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
18.
Loo TJ, Gurunathan D, Somasundaram S. Knowledge and attitude of parents with regard to avulsed permanent tooth of their children and their emergency management - Chennai. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2014;32:97-107.  Back to cited text no. 18
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