• Users Online: 120
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 179-181

Oral mucosal lichen planus in childhood


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication17-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
Neena I Eregowda
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.176686

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Lichen planus is a relatively common mucocutaneous disorder in adults it's rarely reported in children. However, much less data are available regarding lichen planus in children. Here is a report with intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus, although reportedly rare in childhood, should be considered in the diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.

Keywords: Buccal mucosa, childhood, lichen planus


How to cite this article:
Eregowda NI, Sinha S, Poornima P, Roopa K B. Oral mucosal lichen planus in childhood. J Dent Res Rev 2015;2:179-81

How to cite this URL:
Eregowda NI, Sinha S, Poornima P, Roopa K B. Oral mucosal lichen planus in childhood. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jul 16];2:179-81. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2015/2/4/179/176686


  Introduction Top


Lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes. It affects about 0.5-1% of the world's population. [1] Higher incidence is seen in middle-aged or elderly, with female predilection in a ratio of 3:2. [2] About half of the patients with skin lesions have oral lesions, whereas about 25% present with oral lesions alone. [3] Oral lichen planus is a disease of adulthood and children are rarely affected. [4] Although the etiology of the condition remains obscure, it appears to be complex and multifactorial. The various factors include genetic predisposition, infective agents, systemic diseases, graft versus host disease, drug reactions, and hypersensitivity to dental materials and vitamin deficiencies. [5],[6] It has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, including lupus erythematosus, pemphigus, Sjogren's syndrome, and autoimmune liver disease.

The pathogenesis of lichen planus is not completely understood. However, there is evidence suggesting the involvement of T-cells. [7] Modified Langerhans' cells and keratinocytes possibly trigger an immune response and the recruitment of T lymphocytes, encouraged by expression of cell-surface adhesion molecules. [6],[8] Even though both, CD4 (helper) and CD8 (cytotoxic) cells are present but increasing numbers and activation of the CD8 cells is believed to cause the characteristic damage to the basal epithelium. [6],[9]

Up to six clinical appearances of oral lichen planus have been described, including reticular, atrophic, plaque-like, papular, erosive, and bullous types. Oral lichen planus may present anywhere in the oral cavity. However, the buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingiva are the most common sites. There is very little literature on oral lichen planus occurring in childhood. This paper reports a case of oral lichen planus in a child.


  Case Report Top


A 9-year-old Indian boy reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry with the chief complaint of itching and burning sensation in the posterior region of the mouth bilaterally. During history taking, the patient revealed that the problem aggravated on having spicy food. There was no relevant medical, dental, and family history. The patient also did not report any deleterious oral habits.

Oral examination revealed a series of fine, radiant, white striae surrounded by a discrete erythematous border. The striae were bilateral and symmetrical in form, located on the buccal mucosa [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. After observing these characteristic features, a diagnosis of reticular oral lichen planus was made. Treatment consisted of a topical corticosteroid gel to be used when symptomatic. Periodic reviews showed an improvement in both symptoms and severity of the lesion. Three months after the onset of therapy, the patient was asymptomatic. The patient is currently on periodic review.
Figure 1: Reticular oral lichen planus on left buccal mucosa

Click here to view
Figure 2: Reticular oral lichen planus on right buccal mucosa

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Lichen planus was first described as predominately a disease of the middle-aged or 1869, elderly. [2] However, there is limited literature available reporting its occurrence in children. [8] In children, it is often associated with predisposing conditions such as graft versus host disease or chronic active hepatitis. [10] Studies of children with mucocutaneous lichen planus have revealed a very low incidence of oral involvement. Kumar et al. 1993, in a series of 25 children with cutaneous lesions, reported only a single patient with oral mucosal lesions. [11] The incidence of oral lichen planus was stated as 2% by Cottoni et al. 1993, and 3.9% by Milligan et al. 1990. [12] Data from India show a wide range from 1.16% to 11.2%, thereby supporting the findings of Ramsay and Hurley that childhood lichen planus is more common in the tropics. [13]

There is disagreement regarding the clinical features of childhood lichen planus. Some authorities suggest that these are the same as that seen in adults, while others, such as Little, suggested that lichen planus in children was often atypical, with approximately half of his cases showing a "linear" pattern. [14] Milligan et al. supported this observation, with only one out of six children showing classical cutaneous lichen planus. [12] However, in India, where a larger series was studied, more than 50% of patients had classical lichen planus. [11],[15]

There is a variety of possible reasons for the apparent rarity of childhood lichen planus. It may in part be due to misdiagnosis or, as in the cases mentioned above, lichen planus may be superimposed on a background of poor oral hygiene and irregular dental attendance, the latter reducing the opportunity for diagnosis. Lack of symptoms may also be one of the reasons, the patient or dentist fail to report/diagnose the presence of the condition.

If lichen planus is an autoimmune disease, then as with most other such diseases, it may be regarded as a feature of advancing years and associated reduction in Immune regulation. Considering a possible viral etiology, it may be that the viruses that usually affect adults are more frequently associated with lichen planus than those which target children. For example, the hepatitis C virus, which is associated with lichen planus in certain population groups [16] is seen only rarely in the pediatric population. It has also been suggested that poor sanitation in India supports the transfer of adult viruses to children that may explain the higher prevalence. [10]

It is unusual for children to use those drugs known to be associated with lichenoid reactions. However, there are reports of childhood lichenoid eruptions following the administration of hepatitis B vaccine. [17] However, even though the above factors may be contributory, they cannot alone be responsible for the low prevalence of lichen planus in children.

In summary, although lichen planus in children is rare and oral mucosal involvement is even rarer, they do exist, as shown in our report. Hence, this diagnosis should be considered in children presenting with white lesions of the oral mucosa.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Bouquot JE, Gorlin RJ. Leukoplakia, lichen planus, and other oral keratoses in 23,616 white Americans over the age of 35 years. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1986;61:373-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Scully C, el-Kom M. Lichen planus: Review and update on pathogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med 1985;14:431-58.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Andreasen JO. Oral lichen planus 1. A clinical evaluation of 115 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1968;25:31-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Regezi JA, Sciubba JJ. Oral Pathology: Clinical-Pathologic Correlations. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1989.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jungell P. Oral lichen planus. A review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991;20:129-35.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Soames JV, Southam JC. Oral Pathology. 3 rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 151-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sugerman PB, Savage NW, Seymour GJ. Phenotype and suppressor activity of T-lymphocyte clones extracted from lesions of oral lichen planus. Br J Dermatol 1994;131:319-24.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Alam F, Hamburger J. Oral mucosal lichen planus in children. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001;11:209-14.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Cawson RA, Odell EW. Essentials of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine. 6 th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. p. 187-91.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Cottoni F, Ena P, Tedde G, Montesu MA. Lichen planus in children: A case report. Pediatr Dermatol 1993;10:132-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Kumar V, Garg BR, Baruah MC, Vasireddi SS. Childhood lichen planus (LP). J Dermatol 1993;20:175-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Milligan A, Graham-Brown RA. Lichen planus in children - A review of six cases. Clin Exp Dermatol 1990;15:340-2.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ramsay DL, Hurley HJ. Papulosquamous eruptions and exfoliative dermatitis. In: Moschella SL, Hurley HJ, editors. Dermatology. 2 nd ed., Vol. 1. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1985. p. 529-35.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Little FG. Lichen planus. J Cutan Dis 1919;37:639-70.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kanwar AJ, Handa S, Ghosh S, Kaur S. Lichen planus in childhood: A report of 17 patients. Pediatr Dermatol 1991;8:288-91.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Lodi G, Porter SR. Hepatitis C virus infection and lichen planus: A short review. Oral Dis 1997;3:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Rybojad M, Moraillon I, Laglenne S, Vignon-Pennamen MD, Bonvalet D, Prigent F, et al. Lichen planus in children: 12 cases. Ann Dermatol Venereol 1998;125:679-81.  Back to cited text no. 17
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Case Report
Discussion
References
Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1044    
    Printed21    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded106    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]