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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 156-160

Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey


1 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, ACPM Dental College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Institute of Dental Science, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication17-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
M G Inderjit
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al-Kharj
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.176679

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  Abstract 

Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Results: Among the 400 respondents, 48.5% were smokers and 45.75% of students were alcoholics. Among smokers, 55.70% were house surgeon students and 23.07% were 1 st year. Significant difference was found in the percentage of tobacco consumption among medical and dental house surgeon students. The main reason for smoking was examination preparation and workload. Among alcoholics, 51.67% were house surgeon students and 21.9% were 1 st year. The main reason for alcohol consumption was to get relief from tensions. Conclusions: Final year students and house surgeons had more influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college. Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students.

Keywords: Alcohol, dental students, medical students, tobacco


How to cite this article:
Inderjit M G, Karibasappa G N, Nagesh L. Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey. J Dent Res Rev 2015;2:156-60

How to cite this URL:
Inderjit M G, Karibasappa G N, Nagesh L. Tobacco and alcohol use among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere city: A cross-sectional survey. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2018 Aug 18];2:156-60. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2015/2/4/156/176679


  Introduction Top


In this era of prevention and health promotion, the health-related behaviors of health care professionals have drawn considerable attention and are a common focus of research. [1] Today's young health care professionals not only serve as providers of care for their patients but also are expected to be a role model the advice they impart. However it seems that youths have failed to realize the importance of maintaining good health. Unfortunately, there is increase indulgence of the adverse habits among the youths. Two most common habits which are prevailing in youths are tobacco and alcohol consumption. Medical and dental students represent the young population of the society and carrier wise they are extremely responsible. Medical and Dental students are generally in the age group of 17-25 years. This is the time when lifestyle patterns, both healthy and unhealthy, are consolidated. Moreover, as future doctors, they are the role models for the laity in regard to adverse habits.

Tobacco represents the single most preventable cause of disease and death in the world today. Of 260 million male deaths in the developed world between 1950 and 2000, it is estimated 50 million were due to smoking. Currently, some 4 million deaths per year are attributable to tobacco, and this figure is expected to rise to 8.2 million by 2020. [2],[3],[4] The patterns of a health care professional alcohol intake have remained stable or shown a slight increase. In general, younger health care professional consumes alcohol with the same frequency and in the same amounts as their age-related peers. However as physicians age, their alcohol intake tends to increase, in contrast to the intake of the general population, which tends to decrease with age. Tobacco use is associated with a wide variety of diseases including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The oral lesions and conditions associated with tobacco consumption are numerous. It has been estimated smoking accounts for half of all periodontal disease; 59% of oral cancer among females and 91% among males. [2],[5]

Tobacco and alcohol are intimately related to health. Use of these substances among future health care personnel is an important issue. The dental team can play an effective role in the creation of tobacco-free patients as well as their communities through participation in community and political action and by counseling their patients to quit. [6],[7],[8],[9] Maintaining a smoke-free environment is important. Although much published research has been concerned with how to motivate the patient, little attention has been given to the context of when and how dental students undergo attitudinal and behavioral changes with respect to their own smoking habits and alcohol consumption.

The rates of tobacco and alcohol use among students are disturbing, and they suggest novel approaches are needed to augment existing prevention programs to reduce the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among young people. [10],[11],[12],[13] They are the future exemplars, more effective measures are required to help students to reduce tobacco. Students claimed that they had no knowledge on the diagnostics and treatment of tobacco dependence or their knowledge on this issue was poor or very poor hence knowledge regarding alcohol and smoking needed worldwide. [14],[15] Against this background, the present study was carried out, to find out the prevalence and determinants of tobacco and alcohol use among dental and medical students studying in Davangere city.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among male first, final year and house surgeons of J.J.M Medical College and Bapuji Dental College, Davangere. The questionnaire consisted of 20 close-ended questions relating to the use of tobacco and alcohol. Official permission was taken from the concerned authorities to conduct the survey. Students belonging to dental and medical colleges were interviewed separately. The inclusion criteria were those students who volunteered to participate in the study. Depending on the free schedule 1 st year students were asked to gather in the lecture hall of respective colleges. For a final year and interns, questionnaire was distributed in clinics of various departments where they were posted. Subjects were ensured that all the data obtained were maintained confidentially. A total of 400 questionnaires was distributed among the students of the 1 st year, final year and house surgeons of both faculty and the response rate was 100%. The completed questionnaire was seen exclusively by the investigator. The questionnaire was pretested by conducting a pilot study with five students from each year. After analyzing the pretest data, Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient α = 0.846 indicating the survey had a high degree of internal consistency. To see the reproducibility translation of the questionnaire was done to the native language Kannada and after retranslation to English reproducibity was same. The data so obtained were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis.

Statistical methods

the raw data were compiled, tabulated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 14 (SPSS Inc. 2008 by IBM). Chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were applied for assessing significance difference between the students of two colleges and year in which they were studying for usage of tobacco and alcohol.


  Result Top


The number of respondents participated in the study were 170 male dental students and 230 male medical students. Among 170 dental students, 25 students were from the 1 st year, 76 students were from final year and 69 house surgeons and among 230 medical students 66 were from 1 st year and 84 were from final year and 80 house surgeons participated in the present study [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of study subjects

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Percentage of tobacco consumption was 4 (16%) among 1 st year dental students and 17 (25.75%) among 1 st year medical students, and it was not significant. Percentage of tobacco consumption was 44 (57.80%) among final year dental students and 46 (54.76%) among final year medical students, and it was not significant. Percentage of tobacco consumption was 45 (65.20%) among dental house surgeons and 38 (47.50%) among medical house surgeons, and it was significant [Table 2].
Table 2: Percentage of tobacco consumption among under graduate students

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Percentage of alcohol consumption was 5 (20%) among 1 st year dental students and 15 (22.72%) among 1 st year medical students, and it was not significant. Percentage of alcohol consumption was 43 (56.57%) among final year dental students and 43 (51.19%) among final year medical students, and it was not significant. Percentage of alcohol consumption was 41 (59.42%) among dental house surgeons and 36 (45%) among medical house surgeons, and it was not significant [Table 3].
Table 3: Percentage of alcohol consumption among under graduate students

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Among 93 dental undergraduate students and 101 medical undergraduate students, 48% dental undergraduate students and 41% medical undergraduate students attributed reason as peer pressure. 28% of dental undergraduate students and 35% medical undergraduate students told consumption was due to depressive mood. 72% dental undergraduate students and 87% medical undergraduate students told tobacco consumption was during examination preparation. 60% dental undergraduate students and 75% medical undergraduate students told tobacco consumption was due to workload [Graph 1].



Among 89 dental undergraduate students and 94 medical undergraduate students, 23% dental undergraduate students and 19% medical undergraduate students attributed the reason for alcohol consumption as socialization. Thirty-one percent of dental undergraduate students and 36% medical undergraduate students told consumption was due to the feeling of grown up. Sixty-nine percent dental undergraduate students and 91% medical undergraduate students told alcohol consumption was to get relieved from tensions [Graph 2].



Dental and medical undergraduate students opinion about how to quit these habits. Among them, 84% dental undergraduate students and 94% medical undergraduate students told will power. Sixteen percent of dental undergraduate students and 15% medical undergraduate students told family intervention will make them to quit these habits. Seventeen percent dental undergraduate students and 18% medical undergraduate students told medical intervention can help to quit these adverse habits [Graph 3].




  Discussion Top


The present investigation is the first to explore the tobacco and alcohol consumption among male dental and medical students studying in Davangere. Several studies have documented that dental students report excessive smoking and alcohol consumption. [16],[17] It is a well-known fact that smoking and alcohol habits are correlated with high level of stress, depression, and anxiety, which is most commonly associated with the medical and dental profession. The longer academic period for graduating in medicine and dentistry, vast curriculum, increased demand to reach perfection perhaps may create a mindset which results in the acquisition of tobacco and alcohol-related habits. Dentistry has a reputation as a demanding, stressful, technically exacting and sometimes personally hazardous career. [16],[17],[18],[19],[20] Many scientists have examined occupational stress in dental undergraduates and have shown that the concerns of clinical students mirror those of qualified practitioners. [21],[22],[23],[24]

This study showed that a greater proportion of dental house surgeons smoke and consume alcohol compared with medical house surgeons. The prevalence of smoking among 1 st year was more among medical students and in relation to alcohol consumption was same among both. The reasons attributed for increased smoking was exam preparation followed by workload and reasons for alcohol consumption was to get relieved from tensions.

Dumitrescu in 2006 at Romania conducted a study on Tobacco and Alcohol use among dental and medical students. [11],[12] Prevalence of smoking was 28.84% in 1 st year students and 53.18% in 6 th year dental students, whereas in the present study it was 25.75% among 1 st year students and 54.76% among final year dental students. In their study, prevalence of alcohol was 39.58% in 1 st year students and 36.36% in 6 th year medical students, whereas our study reported a prevalence of 22.72% among 1 st year students and 51.19% among final year medical students.

Polychonopoulou et al. in 2004 at UK conducted a study on consumption of smoking among dental students. Prevalence of smoking was 11% among 2 nd year students and 4% among final year students, whereas in this study prevalence of smoking was 16% among 1 st year students and 57.3% among final year students. [15]

Newbury-Birch et al. in 2002 at UK conducted a study on the changing patterns of drinking, illicit drug use, stress, Anxiety and depression in dental students. Prevalence of alcohol was 47% in 2 nd year students, 25% in final year students whereas in this study prevalence of alcohol was 56.57% in final year students. [25] Singh et al. 2003 at Pune conducted a study on Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students. Prevalence of smoking was 46% in medical students because of parental use and peer pressure whereas in the present study prevalence of smoking was 87% in medical students was due to exam pressure. [26] Herity et al. in 1977 at Dublin conducted a study on Tobacco, Alcohol and other drug use among medical students. Prevalence of smoking was 28% and alcohol was 74.6% in medical students whereas in this study prevalence of smoking was 49% and alcohol was 39.5% in medical students. [27]

Tobacco control intervention takes two forms; preventing individuals from starting to smoke or use other tobacco products, and helping current users to stop. Tobacco control and prevention cannot be undertaken without involvement of health care professionals. Physicians and dentists need to be trained to assist to tobacco users to cease smoking. Approaches to tobacco control must be integrated not only into the dental and medical curriculum but also in continuing education programmes (Balczewska, 2004). This study results cannot be completely generalized as the 2 nd and 3 rd year students did not participate in the study. The medical and dental college's environment in this study may not be representative of other colleges due to variations in the factors such as the educational setting, the nature of the training program, and geographic location. Hence, generalization to our country is not possible.


  Conclusions Top


  • Final year students and house surgeons were found to be more under the influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college
  • Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students
  • Peer pressure although was the recognized determinant influencing tobacco habit, it was not a primary determinant.


Recommendations

  • Counseling sessions may be planned at different intervals during the study years to dissuade and prevent students from acquiring such habits
  • Creating a conducive atmosphere to prevent these habits should be the concern of college authorities, teachers, and the students.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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