• Users Online: 823
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-69

Association between tobacco smoking and periodontal status among bank employees of Meerut city


1 Department of Preventive and Community Health Dentistry, D.J. College of Dental Sciences, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Al Farabi Dental College, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Pedodontics, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Nikhil I Malgaonkar
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Al Farabi Dental College, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2348-2915.161203

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Introduction: Periodontal diseases are currently understood to be more complex by nature than previously considered. It is multifactorial. It is not only produced by bacteria, but also by numerous local and systemic factors. Smoking may be considered as one of the major risk factor for periodontal diseases and early loss of teeth. Aim: To assess the periodontal status and early loss of teeth among smokers and nonsmokers of bank employees of Meerut city. Materials and Methods: All the available bank employees of 72 banks were included in the study. The investigator was trained and calibrated before the start of the study. Information about age, sex, religion, occupation, education, tooth brushing frequency, smoking habit, associated systemic diseases, awareness about oral health were recorded by investigator using WHO oral health assessment form (1997). Results: Sextants affected with deep pockets among smokers was 59.8% compared to nonsmokers 31.2% was statistically significant (P < 0.05). A teeth lost among smokers was 62.45% compared to nonsmokers was 35.86%, respectively (P < 0.05).

Keywords: Bank employees, loss of teeth, periodontal status, smoking


How to cite this article:
Singh S, Dagrus K, Shah SN, Malgaonkar NI, Kariya P, Hase P. Association between tobacco smoking and periodontal status among bank employees of Meerut city. J Dent Res Rev 2015;2:67-9

How to cite this URL:
Singh S, Dagrus K, Shah SN, Malgaonkar NI, Kariya P, Hase P. Association between tobacco smoking and periodontal status among bank employees of Meerut city. J Dent Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Oct 23];2:67-9. Available from: http://www.jdrr.org/text.asp?2015/2/2/67/161203


  Introduction Top


Periodontal diseases are currently understood to be more complex by nature than previously considered. It is multifactorial. It is not only produced by bacteria, but also by numerous local and systemic factors. Dr. Halfden Mahler, Director General of WHO (1980) noted that smoking was probably the greatest single cause of ill health in the world being related to cancer, lung, and heart diseases. [1] Smoking may be considered as one of the major risk factor for periodontal diseases and early loss of teeth. [1] There is plenty of evidence in the literature suggesting an association between periodontal diseases, pregnancy, and even preterm low birth weight deliveries. [2] Hence, an attempt is made to know the association if any, between smoking, periodontal status and early loss of teeth and create awareness about hazards of smoking among all available bank employees of Meerut city. Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the periodontal status and early loss of teeth among smokers and nonsmokers of bank employees of Meerut city.


  Materials and Methods Top


All the available bank employees of 72 banks were included in the study. The investigator was trained and calibrated before the start of the study. Information about age, sex, religion, occupation, education, tooth brushing frequency, smoking habit, associated systemic diseases, awareness about oral health were recorded by investigator WHO oral health assessment form (1997) [3] was used to record the periodontal status of the study participants. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical committee, and voluntary informed consent was obtained from all the study participants.


  Results Top


Total of 1010 subjects were examined out of which 768 were males (76%) and 242 were females (24%). Their age ranged from 18 to 60 years. About 23.6% were smokers. All were males. The mean age for smokers was 43.5 years (standards deviation [SD] 6.9) and for nonsmokers it was 42.5 years (SD 7.8). 83.26% of smokers had poor oral hygiene practices compared with nonsmokers, 52.00% (P < 0.05). Percentage of sextants affected with periodontal pockets 6 mm or more among smokers was 59.8 compared to nonsmokers 31.2. Percentage of sextants affected with 6 mm or more was higher among smokers who smoked for >20 years and who smoked >20 cigarettes/day [Table 1].
Table 1: Percentage of sextants affected for different groups (pockets 6 mm or more)


Click here to view


A higher percentage of tooth loss due to periodontal diseases was found among smokers (62.45) than nonsmokers (35.86) (P < 0.05). Tooth loss due to periodontal disease among smokers who smoked for >20 years and who smoked >20 cigarettes/day was more [Table 2]. The periodontal disease among smokers with associated factors was severe than nonsmokers with associated factors [Table 3].
Table 2: Percentage of missing teeth related to duration and number of cigarettes per day


Click here to view
Table 3: Percentage of sextants affected in the study group with and without associated factors (6 mm or more)


Click here to view



  Discussion Top


In many studies, clear evidence of loss of attachment as an effect of smoking has been demonstrated. [1],[4] Tobacco and its effect on oral health is widely known and proven that usage of tobacco and tobacco products causes malignant changes in the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and also causes various periodontal diseases. [5],[6]

Among the smokers, periodontitis is the problem mostly found in these patients. It is found to be more severe in tobacco smoking patients showing deeper pockets, loosening of the teeth and much deeper involvement of the furcation involvement. [7],[8],[9] Dentists and oral health care professionals have more readily and easily access to the smokers as compared to other health care professionals.

The present study also reveals that the percentage of sextants affected with deep pockets among smokers was higher (59.8) compared to nonsmokers (33.68) (P < 0.05). Subjects who had smoked >20 cigarettes/day for more than 20 years had significantly more deep pockets (82%) than those who reported smoking for <20 or fewer years (41.2% and 23.3%) (P < 0.05). Amid I. Ismile (1983) reported that cigarette smokers who had smoked for 15 or fewer years had significantly lower periodontal score than those who reported smoking for more than 15 years (P < 0.001). [10]

Percentage of tooth loss due to periodontal diseases among smokers was 62.45 when compared to nonsmokers were 35.86. The difference being statistically significant (P < 0.05). Smokers had lost 178 teeth while the nonsmokers lost only 52 teeth/1010 individuals. Axelsson et al. also found that smokers had lost 664 teeth than nonsmokers only 13 teeth/1000 individuals. [11]


  Conclusion Top


The present study reveals that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease and early loss of teeth. Hence, all the subjects especially smokers need more education about hazards of smoking and oral health.

 
  References Top

1.
Osterberg T, Mellström D. Tobacco smoking: A major risk factor for loss of teeth in three 70-year-old cohorts. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1986;14:367-70.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Singh S, Dagrus K, Kariya PB, Singh S, Darmina J, Hase P. Oral periodontal health knowledge and awareness among pregnant females in Bangalore, India. Int J Dent Med Res 2015;1:7-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods. 4 th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Johnson GK, Slach NA. Impact of tobacco use on periodontal status. J Dent Educ 2001;65:313-21.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kurhanska-Flisykowska A, Soboczynska K, Stopa J, Wiesiolowska A. Tobacco smoking and periodontitis. Przegl Lek 2005;62:998-1000.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Holm G. Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss. J Periodontol 1994;65:996-1001.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Locker D, Jokovic A, Payne B. Life circumstances, lifestyles and oral health among older Canadians. Community Dent Health 1997;14:214-20.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gunsolley JC, Quinn SM, Tew J, Gooss CM, Brooks CN, Schenkein HA. The effect of smoking on individuals with minimal periodontal destruction. J Periodontol 1998;69:165-70.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Kinane DF, Radvar M. The effect of smoking on mechanical and antimicrobial periodontal therapy. J Periodontol 1997;68:467-72.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Ismail AI, Burt BA, Eklund SA. Epidemiologic patterns of smoking and periodontal disease in the United States. J Am Dent Assoc 1983;106:617-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.
Axelsson P, Paulander J, Lindhe J. Relationship between smoking and dental status in 35-, 50-, 65-, and 75-year-old individuals. J Clin Periodontol 1998;25:297-305.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1463    
    Printed27    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded188    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]